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Wild-type transthyretin amyloid cardiomyopathy: expect the unexpected-a case report

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BACKGROUND: General interest and incidence are increasing in wild-type transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTRwt) in recent time. As patient population increases, further knowledge of the management of the frequently encountered interacting cardiac comorbidities is requested to improve treatment of ATTRwt patients.

CASE SUMMARY: A 73-year-old male ATTRwt patient presented to the outpatient clinic (Day 0) with dyspnoea, leg swelling, and palpitations. At diagnosis, 3 years prior to presentation, he exhibited only minor signs of ATTRwt. At Day 0, clinical examination revealed atrial fibrillation and mild peripheral oedema. Anticoagulant and symptomatic treatment with beta-blocker and diuretics was initiated, and the patient was planned for sub-acute direct cardioversion, and the patient was discharged with a Holter monitor to outpatient care. At Day 7, analysis of the monitoring demonstrated spontaneous conversion to sinus rhythm and, unexpectedly, episodes of high-rate self-remittent sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) and frequent ventricular ectopic beats. At Day 8, a sub-acute coronary angiography was performed which revealed a significant proximal left anterior descending artery stenosis which was treated with percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) and subsequently an internal defibrillator was implanted. Following visits at 1- and 3-month post-PCI at the outpatient clinic revealed no VT and suppression of ventricular ectopic beats.

DISCUSSION: The case illustrates some of the frequently encountered cardiac comorbidities (e.g. atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmia, and ischaemic heart disease) associated with ATTRwt. A high level of suspicion is warranted to identify treatable cardiac conditions [atrial fibrillation, atrioventricular (AV) block, and ischaemic heart disease] and to uncover potentially fatal cardiac conditions in patients with ATTRwt.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberytad431
JournalEuropean Heart Journal - Case Reports
Number of pages6
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023

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