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Volume natriuresis vs. pressure natriuresis.

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  • Peter Bie, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark
  • Søren Wamberg, University of Southern Denmark, Denmark
  • Mads F. Kjølby
Body fluid regulation depends on regulation of renal excretion. This includes a fast vasopressin-mediated water-retaining mechanism, and slower, complex sodium-retaining systems dominated by the renin-angiotensin aldosterone cascade. The sensory mechanisms of sodium control are not identified; effectors may include renal arterial pressure, renal reflexes, extrarenal hormones and other regulatory factors. Since the pioneering work of Guyton more than three decades ago, pressure natriuresis has been in focus. Dissociations between sodium excretion and blood pressure are explained as conditions where regulatory performance exceeds the precision of the measurements. It is inherent to the concept, however, that sudden transition from low to high sodium intake elicits an arterial pressure increase, which is reversed by the pressure natriuresis mechanism. However, such transitions elicit parallel changes in extracellular fluid volume thereby activating volume receptors. Recently we studied the orchestration of sodium homeostasis by chronic and acute sodium loading in normal humans and trained dogs. Small increases in arterial blood pressure are easily generated by acute sodium loading, and dogs appear more sensitive than humans. However, with suitable loading procedures it is possible - also acutely - to augment renal sodium excretion by at least one order of magnitude without any change in arterial pressure whatsoever. Although pressure natriuresis is a powerful mechanism capable of overriding any other controller, it seems possible that it is not operative under normal conditions. Consequently, it is suggested that physiological control of sodium excretion is neurohumoral based on extracellular volume with neural control of renin system activity as an essential component.
Udgivelsesdato: August
Original languageEnglish
JournalActa Physiologica (Print)
Pages (from-to)495-503
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - 2004
Externally publishedYes

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