Validation of MRI assessment of foot perfusion for improving treatment of patients with peripheral artery disease

M. Bisgaard*, K. C. Houlind, A. D. Blankholm, S. Ringgaard, J. Christensen, H. Precht

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Introduction: Information on tissue perfusion in the foot is important when treating patients with chronic limb-threatening ischemia. This study aims to test the reliability of different magnetic resonance sequences when measuring perfusion in the foot. Methods: Sixteen healthy volunteers had their right foot scanned in a test/retest study with six different magnetic resonance sequences (BOLD, multi-echo gradient echo (mGRE), 2D and 3D pCASL, PASL FAIR, and DWI with intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) with quantitative measurements of perfusion. For five sequences, cuff-induced ischemia followed by a hyperactive response was measured. Images of the feet were segmented into angiosomes and perfusion data were extracted from the five angiosomes. Results: BOLD, PASL FAIR, mGRE, and DWI with IVIM had low mean differences between the first and second scans, while the results of 2D and 3D pCASL had the highest differences. Based on a paired t-test, BOLD, and FAIR were able to distinguish between perfusion and no perfusion in all angiosomes with p-values below 0.01. This was not the case with 2D and 3D pCASL with p-values above 0.05 in all angiosomes. The mGRE could not distinguish between perfusion and no perfusion in the lateral side of the foot. Conclusion: BOLD, mGRE, pASL FAIR, and DWI with IVIM seem to give more robust results compared to 2D and 3D pCASL. Further studies on patients with peripheral artery disease should explore if the sequences can have clinical relevance when assessing tissue ischemia and results of revascularization. Implications for practice: This study provides knowledge that could be used to improve the diagnosis of patient with chronic limb-threatening ischemia to explore tissue perfusion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1116-1124
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2024


  • Angiosome
  • Arterial spin labelling
  • BOLD
  • DWI with IVIM
  • Peripheral artery disease
  • Reliability


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