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UGAVs-MDVR: A Cluster-Based Multicast Routing Protocol for Unmanned Ground and Aerial Vehicles Communication in VANET

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  • Waqar Farooq, Institute of Space Technology
  • ,
  • Saif ul Islam, Institute of Space Technology
  • ,
  • Muazzam Ali Khan, Quaid-I-Azam University
  • ,
  • Saad Rehman, HITEC University
  • ,
  • Usman Ali Gulzari, Institute of Space Technology
  • ,
  • Jalil Boudjadar

Unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) are becoming the foremost part of rescue teams for protecting human lives from severe disasters and reducing human casualties by informing them about the risks ahead, such as mine detection and clearance. In mine detection, a centralized system is required so that the UGVs can communicate with each other efficiently to disseminate the mine detection messages (MDMs) to incoming vehicles of military and civilians. Therefore, in this piece of research, a novel unmanned ground and aerial vehicle (UGAV)-based mine-detection-vehicle routing (MDVR) protocol has been proposed, mainly for the mine detection and clearance teams using a vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). The protocol disseminates the MDMs using UGVs and unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in combination to overcome the limitations of only inter-UGV communication. The proposed protocol performs cluster-based multicast communication in real time using UAVs so that the dynamic mobility of UGVs cannot affect the performance of MDM dissemination. Hence, the proposed scheme is adaptable because any failure in message delivery can cause a high level of destruction. The proposed cluster-based scheme can adapt to any real-time scenario by introducing the level-based cluster-head election scheme (LBCHE), which works concerning its assigned priority for reducing the delay incurred in MDMs dissemination. The simulation of the proposed protocol in the network simulator (NS) shows that the overhead and delay are reduced in MDMs dissemination. At the same time, the throughput, packet delivery ratio, and stability increased compared to the other competing protocols.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11995
JournalApplied Sciences
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

    Research areas

  • cluster-head election, mines, multicast communication, unmanned aerial vehicles, unmanned ground vehicles, VANET

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