Translation and validation of the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire—Bowel in Danish men and women with pelvic floor disorders

Ulla Due*, Mette Hulbaek, Margit Majgaard, Jakob Duelund-Jakobsen, Hanna Jangö

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Background: We lack a comprehensive validated Danish questionnaire to evaluate symptoms and bother regarding anal incontinence (AI). The International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Bowel (ICIQ-B) is an internationally recommended questionnaire containing 21 items, of which 17 are scored in three subscales: bowel pattern, bowel control, and quality of life. Aims: To translate the ICIQ-B into Danish and to validate the Danish version in pelvic floor disorder (PFD) patients with and without AI. Methods: The ICIQ-B was translated by a panel of healthcare professionals followed by cognitive interviews with PFD patients attending an outpatient clinic. Revisions were undertaken using an iterative process, and a backward translation was performed for the final version. Pretesting and test-retest of the ICIQ-B were done online and administrated together with the St. Mark's score. Content, structural, convergent and discriminant validity were assessed, followed by an evaluation of relative and absolute reliability, including the smallest real difference (SRD). Results: Thirty cognitive patient interviews were performed, resulting in three revisions. The Danish ICIQ-B was found to be comprehensible and relevant but lacked items addressing the psychological impact of bowel problems. The ICIQ-B was completed online by 227 PFD patients with and without AI. The structural validity of the bowel pattern subscale could not be retrieved. Patients indicating AI had significantly higher ICIQ-B and St. Mark's scores than patients without AI, and ICIQ-B subscale scores correlated moderately with St. Mark's scores. Internal consistency was good except for the bowel pattern subscale. Seventy-six patients completed test-retest. Relative reliability was excellent for subscale scores and moderate or good for single items except for the item concerning stool consistency, which was weak. The SRD was found to be 2.8 for the bowel pattern subscale, 4.3 for bowel control subscale, and 3.6 for the quality-of-life subscale. Conclusion: The Danish version of the ICIQ-B can be used for Danish patients with PFD, and discriminant validity is good. The structural validity and the internal consistency of the bowel pattern subscale are questionable, indicating that some items do not represent the underlying construct. Test-retest reliability of the ICIQ-B is acceptable, but the change needed to reflect a real change above the measurement error in each subscale is three to four points.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNeurourology and Urodynamics
Publication statusAccepted/In press - Apr 2024


  • anal incontinence
  • ICIQ-B
  • quality of life
  • questionnaire
  • symptoms
  • translation
  • validation


Dive into the research topics of 'Translation and validation of the international consultation on incontinence questionnaire—Bowel in Danish men and women with pelvic floor disorders'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this