Tracing the multiregional evolution of the global dysprosium demand-supply chain

Disna Prasadini Eheliyagoda D Ranasinghe Mudiyanse Ralahamillage*, Devarajan Ramanujan, Badrinath Veluri, Qiance Liu, Gang Liu

*Corresponding author for this work

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Dysprosium (Dy) is a critical rare earth element, indispensable for realizing low-carbon technologies. A holistic understanding of global Dy supply-demand chains is essential for ensuring its future sustainable supply and use. This study conducts the first multiregional analysis of Dy flows and stocks to comprehensively trace the global Dy cycle from 1988 to 2021. Results show a rising demand for Dy-comprising intermediate and final products with complex trade fluctuations since 2000. In total, 22,009 tons of intermediate products, primarily as neodymium-based permanent magnets (NdFeB), accumulatively entered the global manufacturing phase, of which China accounted for approximately 55%. Dy use was notable in the United States and Japan for internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles manufacturing and for industrial machinery production in the European Union. Less than 3% of globally mined Dy was recycled. Considering the growing global demand for Dy, alternate supply sources, and regional efforts to promote recycling and circular economy strategies are required.

Original languageEnglish
Article number107245
JournalResources, Conservation & Recycling
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023


  • Circular economy
  • Dysprosium
  • Heavy rare earth
  • International trade
  • Material flow analysis
  • Recycling


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