Theoretical aspects of Magic Angle Spinning - Dynamic Nuclear Polarization

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  • Frederic Mentink-Vigier, CEA Grenoble
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  • Ümit Akbey, Leibniz-Institute für Molakulare Pharmakologie (FMP) and NMR Supported Structural Biology
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  • Hartmut Oschkinat, Leibniz-Institut für Molekulare Pharmakologie (FMP)
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  • Shimon Vega, Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel
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  • Akiva Feintuch, Chemical Physics, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot, Israel

Magic Angle Spinning (MAS) combined with Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) has been proven in recent years to be a very powerful method for increasing solid-state NMR signals. Since the advent of biradicals such as TOTAPOL to increase the nuclear polarization new classes of radicals, with larger molecular weight and/or different spin properties have been developed. These have led to unprecedented signal gain, with varying results for different experimental parameters, in particular the microwave irradiation strength, the static field, and the spinning frequency. Recently it has been demonstrated that sample spinning imposes DNP enhancement processes that differ from the active DNP mechanism in static samples as upon sample spinning the DNP enhancements are the results of energy level anticrossings occurring periodically during each rotor cycle. In this work we present experimental results with regards to the MAS frequency dependence of the DNP enhancement profiles of four nitroxide-based radicals at two different sets of temperature, 110 and 160 K. In fact, different magnitudes of reduction in enhancement are observed with increasing spinning frequency. Our simulation code for calculating MAS-DNP powder enhancements of small model spin systems has been improved to extend our studies of the influence of the interaction and relaxation parameters on powder enhancements. To achieve a better understanding we simulated the spin dynamics of a single three-spin system {<sup>ea</sup>-<sup>eb</sup>-n} during its steady state rotor periods and used the Landau-Zener formula to characterize the influence of the different anti-crossings on the polarizations of the system and their necessary action for reaching steady state conditions together with spin relaxation processes. Based on these model calculations we demonstrate that the maximum steady state nuclear polarization cannot become larger than the maximum polarization difference between the two electrons during the steady state rotor cycle. This study also shows the complexity of the MAS-DNP process and therefore the necessity to rely on numerical simulations for understanding parametric dependencies of the enhancements. Finally an extension of the spin system up to five spins allowed us to probe the first steps of the transfer of polarization from the nuclei coupled to the electrons to further away nuclei, demonstrating a decrease in the spin-diffusion barrier under MAS conditions.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Magnetic Resonance
Pages (from-to)102-120
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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