The Role of MicroRNAs in Natural Tissue Development and Application in Regenerative Medicine

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  • Morten Østergaard Andersen, Denmark
  • Philipp Dillschneider, Denmark
  • Jørgen Kjems
Many cellular functions rely on the coordinated expression and repression of a large number of messenger RNAs; these are tightly controlled in part by microRNAs (miRNAs) at the posttranscriptional level. The number of characterised miRNAs that are involved in tissue development and repair is steadily increasing, and our understanding of their functions is starting to merge. Modulating miRNA levels through externally applied stimuli enables us to control the translation of numerous mRNAs giving us unprecedented control over cellular events; therefore, we predict that such techniques will revolutionise regenerative medicine. This chapter will introduce miRNA biology and their role in controlling pluripotency, stem cell differentiation, proliferation, senescence, survival, inflammation and angiogenesis. There are several strategies by which miRNA-modulating technologies can be used to specifically target tissue engineering and repair, either in culture or in association with implanted cells and/or implants. We will here summarise these methods providing examples from present literature. Based on previous results, we will also predict more advanced technologies that may deliver miRNA in a spatial/temporally regulated manner that may imitate natural miRNA expression. Furthermore, exogenous miRNAs, carried between cells in secreted vesicles, have recently been characterised and may further increase the role and potential of miRNA in relation to regenerative medicine.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRNA Interference from Biology to Therapeutics
EditorsKenneth A. Howard
Number of pages22
Publication year2013
ISBN (print)978-1-4614-4743-6
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-4614-4744-3
Publication statusPublished - 2013
SeriesAdvances in Delivery Science and Technology

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