The female protective effect against autism spectrum disorder

Emilie M Wigdor, Daniel J Weiner, Jakob Grove, Jack M Fu, Wesley K Thompson, Caitlin E Carey, Nikolas Baya, Celia van der Merwe, Raymond K Walters, F Kyle Satterstrom, Duncan S Palmer, Anders Rosengren, Jonas Bybjerg-Grauholm, David M Hougaard, Preben Bo Mortensen, Mark J Daly, Michael E Talkowski, Stephan J Sanders, Somer L Bishop, Anders D BørglumElise B Robinson*, iPSYCH Consortium

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is diagnosed three to four times more frequently in males than in females. Genetic studies of rare variants support a female protective effect (FPE) against ASD. However, sex differences in common inherited genetic risk for ASD are less studied, particularly within families. Leveraging the Danish iPSYCH resource, we found siblings of female ASD cases (n = 1,707) had higher rates of ASD than siblings of male ASD cases (n = 6,270; p < 1.0 × 10-10). In the Simons Simplex and SPARK collections, mothers of ASD cases (n = 7,436) carried more polygenic risk for ASD than fathers of ASD cases (n = 5,926; 0.08 polygenic risk score [PRS] SD; p = 7.0 × 10-7). Further, male unaffected siblings under-inherited polygenic risk (n = 1,519; p = 0.03). Using both epidemiologic and genetic approaches, our findings strongly support an FPE against ASD's common inherited influences.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100134
JournalCell Genomics
Number of pages13
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • ASD
  • autism
  • epidemiology
  • female protective effect
  • genetics
  • genomics
  • polygenic scores
  • recurrent risk
  • sex differences

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