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The evidence for the physiological effects of lactate on the cerebral microcirculation: a systematic review

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  • jnc.14633

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Abstract: Lactate's role in the brain is understood as a contributor to brain energy metabolism, but it may also regulate the cerebral microcirculation. The purpose of this systematic review was to evaluate evidence of lactate as a physiological effector within the normal cerebral microcirculation in reports ranging from in vitro experiments to in vivo studies in animals and humans. Following pre-registration of a review protocol, we systematically searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases for literature covering themes of ‘lactate’, ‘the brain’, and ‘microcirculation’. Abstracts were screened, and data extracted independently by two individuals. We excluded studies evaluating lactate in disease models. Twenty-eight papers were identified, 18 of which were in vivo animal experiments (65%), four on human studies (14%), and six on in vitro or ex vivo experiments (21%). Approximately half of the papers identified lactate as an augmenter of the hyperemic response to functional activation by a visual stimulus or as an instigator of hyperemia in a dose-dependent manner, without external stimulation. The mechanisms are likely to be coupled to NAD + /NADH redox state influencing the production of nitric oxide. Unfortunately, only 38% of these studies demonstrated any control for bias, which makes reliable generalizations of the conclusions insecure. This systematic review identifies that lactate may act as a dose-dependent regulator of cerebral microcirculation by augmenting the hyperemic response to functional activation below 5 mmol/kg, and by initiating a hyperemic response above 5 mmol/kg. Open Science Badges: This article has received a badge for *Pre-registration* because it made the data publicly available. The data can be accessed at www.radboudumc.nl/getmedia/53625326-d1df-432c-980f-27c7c80d1a90/THollyer_lactate_protocol.aspx. The complete Open Science Disclosure form for this article can be found at the end of the article. More information about the Open Practices badges can be found at https://cos.io/our-services/open-science-badges/. (Figure presented.).

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Neurochemistry
Pages (from-to)712-730
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2019

Bibliographical note

© 2018 The Authors. Journal of Neurochemistry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society for Neurochemistry.

    Research areas

  • Lactate, Cerebral Microcirculation, Systematic Review, cerebral blood flow, brain, lactate, systematic review, microcirculation, EXTRACELLULAR LACTATE, HYPOXIA, AUTOREGULATION, METABOLIC-ACIDOSIS, ROLES, NITRIC-OXIDE, TO-PYRUVATE RATIO, AUGMENTS BLOOD-FLOW, BRAIN, SODIUM-LACTATE

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