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The effects of capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH) on the cerebral uptake of glucose and glucose analogs: Application to FDG and comparison to oxygen uptake.

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Glucose is the brain’s principal source of ATP, but the extent to which cerebral glucose consumption (CMRglc) is coupled with its oxygen consumption (CMRO2) remains unclear. Measurements of the brain’s oxygen-glucose index OGI=CMRO2/CMRglc suggest that its oxygen uptake largely suffices for oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, during functional activation and in some disease states, brain tissue seemingly produces lactate although cerebral blood flow (CBF) delivers sufficient oxygen, so-called aerobic glycolysis. OGI measurements, in turn, are method-dependent in that estimates based on glucose analog uptake depend on the so-called lumped constant (LC) to arrive at CMRglc. Capillary transit time heterogeneity (CTH), which is believed to change during functional activation and some disease states, affects the extraction efficacy of oxygen from blood. We developed a three-compartment model of glucose extraction to examine whether CTH also affects glucose extraction into brain tissue. We then combined this model with our previous model of oxygen extraction to examine whether differential glucose and oxygen extraction might favor nonoxidative glucose metabolism under certain conditions. Our model predicts that glucose uptake is largely unaffected by changes in its plasma concentration, while changes in CBF and CTH affect glucose and oxygen uptake to different extents. Accordingly, functional hyperemia facilitates glucose uptake more than oxygen uptake, favoring aerobic glycolysis during enhanced energy demands. Applying our model to glucose analogs, we observe that LC depends on physiological state, with a risk of overestimating relative increases in CMRglc during functional activation by as much as 50%.
Original languageEnglish
Article number103
JournalFrontiers in Computational Neuroscience
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2016

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