The effect of dairy products on liver fat and metabolic risk markers in males with abdominal obesity – a four-arm randomized controlled trial

Karoline Sandby, Faidon Magkos, Elizaveta Chabanova, Esben T. Petersen, Thure Krarup, Hanne Christine S. Bertram, Karsten Kristiansen, Nina R.W Geiker

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of fermented dairy products, such as yogurt, and health; however, evidence from human
intervention trials is scarce and inconsistent. We aimed to investigate the effect of consumption of four
different types of dairy products (two fermented and two non-fermented) on liver fat (primary outcome)
and metabolic risk markers in males with abdominal obesity.
Methods: In this parallel randomized controlled trial with four arms, 100 males aged 30e70 years, with
body mass index 28.0e45.0 kg/m2, and waist circumference 102 cm underwent a 16-weeks intervention
where they were instructed to consume 400 g/day of either milk, yogurt, heat-treated yogurt, or
acidified milk as part of their habitual diet. Liver fat was measured by magnetic resonance imaging.
Results: In the complete case analyses (n ¼ 80), no effects of the intervention or differences between
groups were detected in anthropometry or body composition including liver fat. Moreover, no effects
were detected in inflammatory markers. Main effects of time were detected in blood pressure (decrease;
P < 0.001), insulin (decrease; P < 0.001), C-peptide (decrease; P ¼ 0.040), homeostatic model assessment
for insulin resistance (decrease; P < 0.001), total cholesterol (decrease; P ¼ 0.016), low-density lipoprotein
(decrease; P ¼ 0.033), high-density lipoprotein (decrease; P ¼ 0.006), and alanine transaminase
(decrease; P ¼ 0.019). Interactions between group and time failed to reach significance.
Conclusions: In conclusion, findings from our study do not confirm that fermented yogurt products are
superior in reducing liver fat or improving metabolic risk markers compared to non-fermented milk
products. In fact, all intervention products (both fermented yogurt products and non-fermented milk
products) did not affect liver fat and caused largely similar modest favorable changes in some metabolic
risk markers.
Original languageEnglish
Article number43
JournalClinical Nutrition
Pages (from-to)534-542
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2024

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