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The dynamic uptake and release of SOD3 from intracellular stores in macrophages modulates the inflammatory response

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Superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) is an extracellular enzyme with the capacity to modulate extracellular redox conditions by catalyzing the dismutation of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide. In addition to synthesis and release of this extracellular protein via the secretory pathway, several studies have shown that the protein also localizes to intracellular compartments in neutrophils and macrophages. Here we show that human macrophages release SOD3 from an intracellular compartment within 30 min following LPS stimulation. This release acutely increases the level of SOD3 on the cell surface as well as in the extracellular environment. Generation of the intracellular compartment in macrophages is supported by endocytosis of extracellular SOD3 via the LDL receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1). Using bone marrow-derived macrophages established from wild-type and SOD3−/− mice, we further show that the pro-inflammatory profile established in LPS-stimulated cells is altered in the absence of SOD3, suggesting that the active release of this protein affects the inflammatory response. The internalization and acute release from stimulated macrophages indicates that SOD3 not only functions as a passive antioxidant in the extracellular environment, but also plays an active role in modulating redox signaling to support biological responses.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101268
JournalRedox Biology
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2019

    Research areas

  • Extracellular redox regulation, Internalization, LRP1, Macrophage, Secretion, Superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3)

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