Department of Economics and Business Economics

The burden of mental disorders, substance use disorders and self-harm among young people in Europe, 1990-2019: Findings from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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  • Ann Kristin Skrindo Knudsen, Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Norwegian Institute of Public Health (NIPH)
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  • Emilie E Agardh, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute
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  • Benedetta Armocida, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Institutes of Health
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  • Massimiliano Beghi, Department of Mental Health Vejle, Mental Health Services in the Region of Southern Denmark, Vejle
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  • Kim Moesgaard Iburg
  • Giancarlo Logroscino, University of Bari Aldo Moro
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  • Rui Ma, Univ Washington, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, University of Washington Tacoma, Dept Biol Oceanog
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  • Fabrizio Starace, Department of Mental Health & Drug Abuse
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  • Nicholas Steel, Univ East Anglia, University of East Anglia, Sch Biol Sci
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  • Giovanni Addolorato, Institute of Pharmacology, Catholic University School of Medicine, Rome, Italy.
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  • Catalina Liliana Andrei, Cardiology Department Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
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  • Tudorel Andrei, Department of Statistics and Econometrics Bucharest Carol Davila University of Economic Studies
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  • Jose L Ayuso-Mateos, Carlos III Institute of Health (RedIAPP-RETICS)
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  • Maciej Banach, Med Univ Lodz, Medical University Lodz
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  • Till Winfried Bärnighausen, Heidelberg Univ, Ruprecht Karl University Heidelberg, Dept Phys & Astron Heidelberg
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  • Francesco Barone-Adesi, University of Eastern Piedmont
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  • Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula, Charles Darwin Univ, Charles Darwin University, RIEL
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  • Felix Carvalho, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Márcia Carvalho, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Joht Singh Chandan, National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre, University Hospitals Birmingham NHS Foundation Trust and University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK; Centre for Liver and Gastrointestinal Research, Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK.
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  • Vijay Kumar Chattu, The University of the West Indies Kingston
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  • Rosa A S Couto, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Natália Cruz-Martins, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Paul I Dargan, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, King's Health Partners, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.
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  • Keshab Deuba, National Centre for AIDS and STD Control
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  • Diana Dias da Silva, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Adeniyi Francis Fagbamigbe, Univ Coll Hosp, University College Hospital, Ibadan, University of Ibadan
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  • Eduarda Fernandes, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Pietro Ferrara, Univ Milan, University of Milan, University of Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento Sci Terra Ardito Desio
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  • Florian Fischer, Department of Internal Medicine 4-Nephrology and Hypertension, Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and University Hospital Erlangen, Erlangen, Germany; Department of Nephrology and Medical Intensive Care, Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
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  • Peter Andras Gaal, Semmelweis Univ, Semmelweis University, Heart & Vasc Ctr
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  • Alessandro Gialluisi, Department of Prevention and Evaluation, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS GmbH, Bremen, Germany.
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  • Juanita A Haagsma, Erasmus University Medical Center Cancer Institute, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Erasmus University Medical Center.
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  • Josep Maria Haro, Liver Unit, Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, University de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain; Institut d'Investigacions Biomediques August Pi I Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain; Centro d'Investigación Biomédica en Red Enfermedades Hepáticas y Digestivas (CIBEReHD), Barcelona, Spain.
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  • M Tasdik Hasan, Univ Huddersfield, University of Huddersfield, Sch Appl Sci
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  • Syed Shahzad Hasan, Liverpool Business Sch, Liverpool John Moores University, University of Liverpool
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  • Sorin Hostiuc, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
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  • Licia Iacoviello, Department of Prevention and Evaluation, Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology BIPS GmbH, Bremen, Germany.
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  • Ivo Iavicoli, Univ Naples Federico II, University of Naples Federico II, Dept Neurosci Reprod & Odontostomatol Sci
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  • Elham Jamshidi, Ophthalmic Research Center, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran, Department of Optometry, School of Rehabilitation, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
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  • Jost B Jonas, Institute of Molecular and Clinical Ophthalmology Basel
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  • Tamas Joo, Semmelweis Univ, Semmelweis University, Heart & Vasc Ctr
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  • Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak, Opole Univ, University of Opole, Inst Phys
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  • Srinivasa Vittal Katikireddi, MRC-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
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  • Joonas H Kauppila, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute
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  • Moien A B Khan, Department of Biology, United Arab Emirates University, United Arab Emirates.
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  • Adnan Kisa, Kristiania University College
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  • Sezer Kisa, Oslo Metropolitan Univ, Oslo Metropolitan University (OsloMet), Fac Hlth Sci
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  • Mika Kivimäki, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; MRC-PHE Centre for Environment, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, London, UK; Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, University of Ioannina Medical School, Ioannina, Greece.
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  • Kamrun Nahar Koly, Health System and Population Studies Divisions
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  • Ai Koyanagi, Biomedical Research Networking Center for Mental Health Network (CIBERSAM)
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  • Manasi Kumar, Univ Coll London Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University of London, University College London, Inst Nucl Med
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  • Tea Lallukka, University of Helsinki
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  • Berthold Langguth, Institute of Clinical Microbiology and Hygiene, University Hospital Regensburg, University of Regensburg, Regensburg, Germany.
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  • Caterina Ledda, Scuola Superiore di Catania, University of Catania
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  • Paul H Lee, SAPPHIRE Group, Health Sciences, Leicester University, Leicester, UK Paediatric Emergency Medicine Leicester Academic (PEMLA) Group, Leicester Royal Infirmary, Leicester, UK.
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  • Ilaria Lega, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (MEC), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia
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  • Christine Linehan, University College Dublin
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  • Joana A Loureiro, Biotechnology and Energy (LEPABE) University of Porto
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  • Áurea M Madureira-Carvalho, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Jose Martinez-Raga, Hospital Universitario Doctor Peset
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  • Manu Raj Mathur, Health Policy Research Public Health Foundation of India
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  • John J McGrath
  • Enkeleint A Mechili, University of Vlora
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  • Alexios-Fotios A Mentis, Cardiovascular & Metabolic Disorders Program, Duke-National University of Singapore Medical School, Singapore: National Heart Research Institute Singapore, National Heart Centre, Singapore: Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University Singapore, Singapore: The Hatter Cardiovascular Institute, University College London, London, UK: The National Institute of Health Research University College London Hospitals Biomedical Research Centre, Research & Development, London, UK: Barts Heart Centre, St Bartho
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  • Tomislav Mestrovic, Clinical Microbiology and Parasitology Unit
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  • Bartosz Miazgowski, Pomeranian Med Univ, Pomeranian Medical University
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  • Andreea Mirica, Department of Statistics and Econometrics Bucharest University of Economic Studies
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  • Antonio Mirijello, Department of Medical Sciences IRCCS Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza General Hospital
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  • Babak Moazen, Heidelberg Univ, Ruprecht Karl University Heidelberg, Dept Phys & Astron Heidelberg
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  • Shafiu Mohammed, Ahmadu Bello University
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  • Francesk Mulita, General University Hospital of Patras
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  • Gabriele Nagel, Institute of Epidemiology and Medical Biometry, Ulm University, Ulm
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  • Ionut Negoi, Department of General Surgery Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy
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  • Ruxandra Irina Negoi, Department of Anatomy and Embryology Romania
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  • Vincent Ebuka Nwatah, National Hospital
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  • Alicia Padron-Monedero, National School of Public Health Institute of Health Carlos III
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  • Songhomitra Panda-Jonas, Privatpraxis
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  • Shahina Pardhan, Anglia Ruskin University
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  • Maja Pasovic, Univ Washington, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, University of Washington Tacoma, Dept Biol Oceanog
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  • Jay Patel, Edinburgh Cancer Centre, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK.
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  • Ionela-Roxana Petcu, Department of Statistics and Econometrics Bucharest University of Economic Studies
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  • Marina Pinheiro, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Richard Charles G Pollok, St George's Vascular Institute, St George's University Hospital, London
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  • Maarten J Postma, Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Department of Pathology and Medical Biology, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
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  • David Laith Rawaf, WHO Collaborating Centre for Public Health Education and Training Imperial College London
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  • Salman Rawaf, Imperial Coll London, Imperial College London, Imperial Clin Trials Unit
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  • Esperanza Romero-Rodríguez, Maimonides Biomedical Research Institute of Cordoba (IMIBIC)
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  • Luca Ronfani, Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", 34137 Trieste, Italy.
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  • Dominic Sagoe, Department of Psychosocial Science University of Bergen
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  • Francesco Sanmarchi, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy.
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  • Michael P Schaub, Swiss Research Institute for Public Health and Addiction University of Zürich
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  • Nigussie Tadesse Sharew, Interdisciplinary Centre Psychopathology and Emotion regulation (ICPE) University of Groningen
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  • Rahman Shiri, Occupational Medicine, Finnish Institute of Occupational Health, Helsinki, Finland.
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  • Farhad Shokraneh, Department of Psychosis Studies, King's College London, King's Health Partners, Institute of Psychiatry, London, UK.
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  • Inga Dora Sigfusdottir, Reykjavik University, Reykjavik, Iceland
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  • João Pedro Silva, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Renata Silva, Department of Genetics, Portuguese Oncology Institute, Porto, and Biomedical Sciences Institute (ICBAS), Porto University, Porto, Portugal.
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  • Bogdan Socea, "Sf. Pantelimon" Emergency Clinical Hospital Bucharest
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  • Miklós Szócska, Semmelweis Univ, Semmelweis University, Heart & Vasc Ctr
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  • Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos, Physiology Department, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.
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  • Marco Torrado, CIS, ISCTE, IUL Lisbon University Institute, Lisbon, Portugal
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  • Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone, São Paulo State University, São Paulo, Brazil
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  • Tommi Juhani Vasankari, UKK Institute
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  • Massimiliano Veroux, Scuola Superiore di Catania, University of Catania
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  • Russell M Viner, Univ Coll London Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, University of London, University College London, Inst Nucl Med
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  • Andrea Werdecker, Federal Institute for Population Research
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  • Andrea Sylvia Winkler, University of Oslo, Norway; Department of Pain Management and Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; Department of Anaesthesiology, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway. Electronic address: harald.breivik@medsin.uio.no.
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  • Simon I Hay, Univ Washington, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, University of Washington Tacoma, Dept Biol Oceanog
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  • Alize J Ferrari, Univ Washington, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, University of Washington Tacoma, Dept Biol Oceanog
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  • Mohsen Naghavi, Univ Washington, University of Washington, University of Washington Seattle, University of Washington Tacoma, Dept Biol Oceanog
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  • Peter Allebeck, Karolinska University Hospital and Karolinska Institute
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  • Lorenzo Monasta, Institute for Maternal and Child Health - IRCCS "Burlo Garofolo", 34137 Trieste, Italy.

Background: Mental health is a public health issue for European young people, with great heterogeneity in resource allocation. Representative population-based studies are needed. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study 2019 provides internationally comparable information on trends in the health status of populations and changes in the leading causes of disease burden over time.

Methods: Prevalence, incidence, Years Lived with Disability (YLDs) and Years of Life Lost (YLLs) from mental disorders (MDs), substance use disorders (SUDs) and self-harm were estimated for young people aged 10-24 years in 31 European countries. Rates per 100,000 population, percentage changes in 1990-2019, 95% Uncertainty Intervals (UIs), and correlations with Sociodemographic Index (SDI), were estimated.

Findings: In 2019, rates per 100,000 population were 16,983 (95% UI 12,823 - 21,630) for MDs, 3,891 (3,020 - 4,905) for SUDs, and 89·1 (63·8 - 123·1) for self-harm. In terms of disability, anxiety contributed to 647·3 (432-912·3) YLDs, while in terms of premature death, self-harm contributed to 319·6 (248·9-412·8) YLLs, per 100,000 population. Over the 30 years studied, YLDs increased in eating disorders (14·9%;9·4-20·1) and drug use disorders (16·9%;8·9-26·3), and decreased in idiopathic developmental intellectual disability (-29·1%;23·8-38·5). YLLs decreased in self-harm (-27·9%;38·3-18·7). Variations were found by sex, age-group and country. The burden of SUDs and self-harm was higher in countries with lower SDI, MDs were associated with SUDs.

Interpretation: Mental health conditions represent an important burden among young people living in Europe. National policies should strengthen mental health, with a specific focus on young people.

Funding: The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Lancet Regional Health - Europe
Volume16
Pages (from-to)100341
ISSN2666-7762
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Bibliographical note

© 2022 The Author(s).

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