Targeted Temperature Management in Adult Cardiac Arrest: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

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  • Asger Granfeldt
  • Mathias J Holmberg
  • Jerry P Nolan, University of Warwick, Royal United Hospital, Bath
  • ,
  • Jasmeet Soar, Southmead Hospital
  • ,
  • Lars W Andersen
  • Advanced Life Support Task Force at the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR)

AIM: To perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on targeted temperature management in adult cardiac arrest patients.

METHODS: PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched on June 17, 2021 for clinical trials. The population included adult patients with cardiac arrest. The review included all aspects of targeted temperature management including timing, temperature, duration, method of induction and maintenance, and rewarming. Two investigators reviewed trials for relevance, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Data were pooled using random-effects models. Certainty of evidence was evaluated using GRADE.

RESULTS: The systematic search identified 32 trials. Risk of bias was assessed as intermediate for most of the outcomes. For targeted temperature management with a target of 32-34°C vs. normothermia (which often required active cooling), 9 trials were identified, with six trials included in meta-analyses. Targeted temperature management with a target of 32-34°C did not result in an improvement in survival (risk ratio: 1.08 [95%CI: 0.89, 1.30]) or favorable neurologic outcome (risk ratio: 1.21 [95%CI: 0.91, 1.61]) at 90 to 180 days after the cardiac arrest (low certainty of evidence). Three trials assessed different hypothermic temperature targets and found no difference in outcomes (low certainty of evidence). Ten trials were identified comparing prehospital cooling vs. no prehospital cooling with no improvement in survival (risk ratio: 1.01 [95%CI: 0.92, 1.11]) or favorable neurologic outcome (risk ratio: 1.00 [95%CI: 0.90, 1.11]) at hospital discharge (moderate certainty of evidence).

CONCLUSIONS: Among adult patients with cardiac arrest, the use of targeted temperature management at 32-34°C, when compared to normothermia, did not result in improved outcomes in this meta-analysis. There was no effect of initiating targeted temperature management prior to hospital arrival. These findings warrant an update of international cardiac arrest guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
JournalResuscitation
Volume167
Pages (from-to)160-172
Number of pages13
ISSN0300-9572
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021

    Research areas

  • Cardiac arrest, Cooling, Hypothermia, Systematic review, Targeted temperature management, EUROPEAN-RESUSCITATION-COUNCIL, MILD HYPOTHERMIA, AMERICAN-HEART-ASSOCIATION, CARDIOPULMONARY-RESUSCITATION, INTERNATIONAL LIAISON COMMITTEE, RAPID INFUSION, PREHOSPITAL THERAPEUTIC HYPOTHERMIA, COLD SALINE, COMATOSE SURVIVORS, CARDIOVASCULAR CARE COMMITTEE

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