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Greenhouse gas emissions are a global problem facing the dairy/beef industry. Novel feed additives consisting of seaweeds and hemp containing bioactive compounds are theorized to reduce enteric methane emissions. In this study we aimed to investigate the metabolic profiles of brown, red and green seaweeds and hemp using gas chromatography and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. We used targeted and untargeted approaches, quantifying known halomethanes and phenolics, as well as identifying potentially novel bioactive compounds with anti-methanogenic properties. The main findings were: (a) Asparagopsis taxiformis contained halomethanes, with high concentrations of bromoform (4200 µg/g DW), six volatile halocarbons were tentatively identified; (b) no halomethanes were detected in the other studied seaweeds nor in hemp; (c) high concentrations of lignans were measured in hemp; (d) a high numbers of sulfated phenolic acids and unidentified sulfuric acid-containing compounds were detected in all seaweeds; (e) flavonoid glucosides and glucuronides were mainly identified in hemp; and (f) the condensed tannin gallocatechin was tentatively identified in Fucus sp. Using the combined metabolomics approach, an overview and in-depth information on secondary metabolites were provided. Halomethanes of Asparagopsis sp. have already been shown to be anti-methanogenic; however, metabolic profiles of seaweeds such as Dictyota and Sargassum have also been shown to contain compounds that may have anti-methanogenic potential.
- Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)
- Greenhouse gasses
- Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS)
- Metabolomic profiling