Sudden vs Pressure Wean From Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Infants Born Before 32 Weeks of Gestation: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Christina Friis Jensen, Anna Sellmer, Finn Ebbesen, Rasa Cipliene, Anders Johansen, Rikke Monrad Hansen, Jens Peter Nielsen, Olga Hogreffe Nikitina, Jesper Padkær Petersen, Tine Brink Henriksen

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Abstract

IMPORTANCE Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) is a well-established treatment of respiratory distress syndrome in preterm infants. Suboptimal weaning from nCPAP may be associated with lung injury, pulmonary morbidity, and infant weight gain. To our knowledge, the best weaning strategy from nCPAP is unknown. OBJECTIVE To compare the effect of sudden wean and pressure wean from nCPAP in very preterm infants. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A randomized, clinical, open-label, multicenter trial was conducted at 6 neonatal intensive care units in Denmark from September 2012 to December 2016 and included infants born before 32 weeks of gestation. INTERVENTIONS Sudden wean with discontinuation of nCPAP without a prior reduction in pressure. Pressure wean with gradual pressure reduction prior to the discontinuation of nCPAP. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURES The primary outcome was weight gain velocity from randomization to postmenstrual age 40 weeks. Secondary outcomes included other measures of growth, nCPAP and the duration of oxygen supplementation, postmenstrual age at successful wean and at discharge, successful wean at the first attempt, the number of attempts to wean, and the length of the hospital stay. Prespecified subgroup analyses by gestational age were performed. RESULTS Of the 372 randomized infants, 185 (49.7%) were randomized to sudden wean and 187 infants (50.3%) to pressure wean. A total of 177 infants in both groups completed the trial (median gestational age for sudden and pressure wean, 30 weeks [interquartile range, 29-31]; male: sudden wean, 89 [50%]; pressure wean, 96 [54%]). There was no difference in mean [SD] weight gain velocity from randomization to 40 weeks postmenstrual age between the 2 groups (22 [6] g/kg/day). No difference was found in any of the secondary outcomes. More infants born before 28 weeks of gestation were successfully weaned from nCPAP during the first attempt in the pressure wean group compared with the sudden wean group (risk difference, 31%; 95% CI, 13%-50%), but there was no difference in the duration of nCPAP and oxygen supplementation. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Overall, we found no difference in weight gain velocity or any of the secondary outcomes between very preterm infants who were randomized to sudden wean or pressure wean from nCPAP. However, among infants born before 28 weeks' gestation, infants from the pressure wean group were more often successfully weaned during the first attempt without a longer total duration of nCPAP treatment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJAMA Pediatrics
Volume172
Issue9
Pages (from-to)824-831
Number of pages8
ISSN1072-4710
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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