Soluble programmed cell death protein 1 (sPD-1) and the soluble programmed cell death ligands 1 and 2 (sPD-L1 and sPD-L2) in lymphoid malignancies

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Background: The programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and its ligand 1 and 2 (PD-L1/PD-L2) regulate the immune system, and the checkpoint pathway can be exploited by malignant cells to evade anti-tumor immune response. Soluble forms (sPD-1/sPD-L1/sPD-L2) exist in the peripheral blood, but their biological and clinical significance is unclear. Method: Time-resolved immunofluorometric assay (TRIFMA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to measure sPD-1, sPD-L1, and sPD-L2 levels in serum from 131 lymphoma patients and 22 healthy individuals. Results: Patients had higher sPD-1 and sPD-L2 levels than healthy individuals. In diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, patients with high International Prognostic Index score had higher sPD-1 levels and sPD-L2 levels correlated with subtype according to cell of origin. Compared to other lymphoma types, follicular lymphoma displayed higher sPD-1 and lower sPD-L1 levels along with lower ligand/receptor ratios. Conclusion: This is the first study to simultaneously characterize pretherapeutic sPD-1, sPD-L1, and sPD-L2 in a variety of lymphoma subtypes. The relation between higher sPD-1 levels and adverse prognostic factors suggests a possible biological role and potential clinical usefulness of sPD-1. Moreover, the reverse expression pattern in follicular lymphoma and T-cell lymphoma/leukemia may reflect biological information relevant for immunotherapy targeting the PD-1 pathway.

Original languageEnglish
Book seriesEuropean Journal of Haematology
Pages (from-to)81-91
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021

    Research areas

  • B7-H1 antigen, Hodgkin disease, Non-Hodgkin, lymphoma, programmed cell death 1 receptor, programmed cell death ligand 2 protein, serum, Non&#8208, B7&#8208, Hodgkin, H1 antigen

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