Role of fasting duration and weekday in incretin and glucose regulation

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  • Kim K.B. Clemmensen, Steno Diabetes Center
  • ,
  • Jonas S. Quist, Steno Diabetes Center
  • ,
  • Dorte Vistisen, Steno Diabetes Center
  • ,
  • Daniel R. Witte
  • Anna Jonsson, Kobenhavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Oluf Pedersen, Kobenhavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Torben Hansen, Kobenhavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Jens J. Holst, Kobenhavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Torsten Lauritzen
  • Marit E. Jørgensen, Steno Diabetes Center, University of Southern Denmark
  • ,
  • Signe Torekov, Kobenhavns Universitet
  • ,
  • Kristine Færch, Steno Diabetes Center

Fasting duration has been associated with lower fasting blood glucose levels, but higher 2-h post-load levels, and research has indicated an adverse effect of ‘weekend behavior’ on human metabolism. We investigated associations of fasting duration and weekday of examination with glucose, insulin, glucagon and incretin responses to an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This cross-sectional study is based on data from the ADDITION-PRO study, where 2082 individuals attended a health examination including an OGTT. Linear regression analysis was applied to study the associations of overnight fasting duration and day of the week with glucose, insulin, glucagon, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) responses to an OGTT. We found that a 1 h longer fasting duration was associated with 1.7% (95% CI: 0.8,2.5) higher 2-h glucose levels, as well as a 3.0% (95% CI: 1.3,4.7) higher GIP and 2.3% (95% CI: 0.3,4.4) higher GLP-1 response. Fasting insulin levels were 20.6% (95% CI: 11.2,30.7) higher on Mondays compared to the other weekdays, with similar fasting glucose levels (1.7%, 95% CI: 0.0,3.4). In this study, longer overnight fasting duration was associated with a worsening of glucose tolerance and increased incretin response to oral glucose. We found higher fasting insulin levels on Mondays compared to the other days of the week, potentially indicating a worsened glucose regulation after the weekend.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEndocrine Connections
Pages (from-to)279–288
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020

    Research areas

  • Fasting duration, Incretin, Metabolism, Oral glucose tolerance test, Weekday

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