Reversible lung fibrosis in a 6-year-old girl after long term nitrofurantoin treatment

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Background: Pulmonary side effects are well known, including lung fibrosis, in elderly patients treated with long-term nitrofurantoin to prevent urinary tract infections and secondary renal injury. However, pulmonary side effects have only been reported rarely in paediatric cases, despite nitrofurantoin being a first line prophylactic treatment of recurrent childhood urinary tract infection. Case presentations: A 6-year-old girl was admitted to the hospital with dyspnea, general fatigue, loss of appetite and need for nasal oxygen treatment after long-term nitrofurantoin treatment. A computed tomography scan of the chest showed lung fibrosis. A biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. We suspected the fibrosis to be caused by the nitrofurantoin treatment. Thorough examinations reveal no other explanations. Nitrofurantoin was discontinued and the girl was treated with methylprednisolone. After 17 month a new scan and lung function test showed total regression of the lung fibrosis. Conclusions: This case underlines that risk of severe side effects should be taken in to account before initiation of long-term nitrofurantoin treatment in children.

Original languageEnglish
Article number313
JournalBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Number of pages4
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2020

    Research areas

  • Lung fibrosis, Nitrofurantoin, Paediatrics, Side effects, Urinary tract infection

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