Remote follow-up using patient-reported outcome measures in patients with chronic kidney disease: The PROKID study-study protocol for a non-inferiority pragmatic randomised controlled trial

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Background: Outpatient care is steadily changing from hospital consultations to other platforms, such as phone consultation and online virtual clinics. It is prudent to maintain quality of care with such initiatives. Currently, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have frequent scheduled visits, but it may be possible to optimise the frequency of hospital consultations using information from patient-reported outcome (PRO) questionnaires filled in at home (PRO-based follow-up). This approach may provide a more individually tailored follow-up based on actual needs for clinical attention. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the quality of care, use of resources and patient outcomes associated with PRO-based follow-up in patients with CKD. Methods: This study is a pragmatic, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in outpatients with CKD (Grove BE et al., Qual Life Res 27: S143, 2018). Newly referred patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of ≤40 ml/min 1.73m2 will be randomised to either: 1. PRO-based remote follow-up 2. PRO-based telephone consultation 3. Usual outpatient follow-up (control group) In the two intervention groups, a diagnosis-specific PRO questionnaire completed by the patient at home will substitute for usual outpatient follow-up visits. The PRO questionnaire will in part be used as a screening tool to identify patients in need of outpatient contact and to identify focus areas. Responses from the questionnaire will be processed according to a disease-specific algorithm and assigned green, yellow or red status according to patients' needs. The primary outcome will be loss of renal function evaluated by eGFR. Secondary outcomes are 1. Clinical outcomes, including initiation of acute dialyses, hospitalisation and mortality, 2. Utilisation of healthcare resources and 3. PRO measures, primarily quality of life (Euroqol EQ-5D) and illness perception (Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire (BIPQ). Discussion: Benefits and possible drawbacks of the PRO-based follow-up will be evaluated. If PRO-based follow-up proves non-inferior to usual outpatient follow-up, a reorganisation of routine clinical practice in nephrology outpatient clinics may occur. Further, results may impact other patient groups with chronic conditions attending regular follow-up. Trial registration: identifier NCT03847766 (Retrospectively registered on January 23, 2019).

Original languageEnglish
Article number631
JournalBMC Health Services Research
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2019

    Research areas

  • Ambulatory care, CLINICAL-PRACTICE, COMMUNICATION, Chronic kidney disease, DESIGN, GENERAL SELF-EFFICACY, Outpatient clinic, PROGRESSION, Patient-reported outcome measures, QUALITY-OF-LIFE, Randomised controlled trial, STRATEGIES

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