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Recreational vessels without Automatic Identification System (AIS) dominate anthropogenic noise contributions to a shallow water soundscape

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Recreational vessels without Automatic Identification System (AIS) dominate anthropogenic noise contributions to a shallow water soundscape. / Hermannsen, Line; Mikkelsen, Lonnie; Tougaard, Jakob; Beedholm, Kristian; Johnson, Mark; Madsen, Peter T.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, No. 1, 15477, 10.2019.

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@article{b6e6c5ca67a24dc28449e0dd91c40f51,
title = "Recreational vessels without Automatic Identification System (AIS) dominate anthropogenic noise contributions to a shallow water soundscape",
abstract = "Recreational boating is an increasing activity in coastal areas and its spatiotemporal overlap with key habitats of marine species pose a risk for negative noise impacts. Yet, recreational vessels are currently unaccounted for in vessel noise models using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. Here we conduct a case study investigating noise contributions from vessels with and without AIS (non-AIS) in a shallow coastal area within the Inner Danish waters. By tracking vessels with theodolite and AIS, while recording ambient noise levels, we find that non-AIS vessels have a higher occurrence (83%) than AIS vessels, and that motorised recreational vessels can elevate third-octave band noise centred at 0.125, 2 and 16 kHz by 47-51 dB. Accordingly, these vessels dominated the soundscape in the study site due to their high numbers, high speeds and proximity to the coast. Furthermore, recreational vessels caused 49-85% of noise events potentially eliciting behavioural responses in harbour porpoises (AIS vessels caused 5-24%). We therefore conclude that AIS data would poorly predict vessel noise pollution and its impacts in this and other similar marine environments. We suggest to improve vessel noise models and impact assessments by requiring that faster and more powerful recreational vessels carry AIS-transmitters.",
keywords = "BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHINS, COASTAL WATERS, FREQUENCY NOISE, IMPACTS, PORPOISE PHOCOENA-PHOCOENA, RADIATED NOISE, SARASOTA BAY, SHIP NOISE, TURSIOPS-TRUNCATUS, UNDERWATER",
author = "Line Hermannsen and Lonnie Mikkelsen and Jakob Tougaard and Kristian Beedholm and Mark Johnson and Madsen, {Peter T}",
year = "2019",
month = oct,
doi = "10.1038/s41598-019-51222-9",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Scientific Reports",
issn = "2045-2322",
publisher = "Nature Publishing Group",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Recreational vessels without Automatic Identification System (AIS) dominate anthropogenic noise contributions to a shallow water soundscape

AU - Hermannsen, Line

AU - Mikkelsen, Lonnie

AU - Tougaard, Jakob

AU - Beedholm, Kristian

AU - Johnson, Mark

AU - Madsen, Peter T

PY - 2019/10

Y1 - 2019/10

N2 - Recreational boating is an increasing activity in coastal areas and its spatiotemporal overlap with key habitats of marine species pose a risk for negative noise impacts. Yet, recreational vessels are currently unaccounted for in vessel noise models using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. Here we conduct a case study investigating noise contributions from vessels with and without AIS (non-AIS) in a shallow coastal area within the Inner Danish waters. By tracking vessels with theodolite and AIS, while recording ambient noise levels, we find that non-AIS vessels have a higher occurrence (83%) than AIS vessels, and that motorised recreational vessels can elevate third-octave band noise centred at 0.125, 2 and 16 kHz by 47-51 dB. Accordingly, these vessels dominated the soundscape in the study site due to their high numbers, high speeds and proximity to the coast. Furthermore, recreational vessels caused 49-85% of noise events potentially eliciting behavioural responses in harbour porpoises (AIS vessels caused 5-24%). We therefore conclude that AIS data would poorly predict vessel noise pollution and its impacts in this and other similar marine environments. We suggest to improve vessel noise models and impact assessments by requiring that faster and more powerful recreational vessels carry AIS-transmitters.

AB - Recreational boating is an increasing activity in coastal areas and its spatiotemporal overlap with key habitats of marine species pose a risk for negative noise impacts. Yet, recreational vessels are currently unaccounted for in vessel noise models using Automatic Identification System (AIS) data. Here we conduct a case study investigating noise contributions from vessels with and without AIS (non-AIS) in a shallow coastal area within the Inner Danish waters. By tracking vessels with theodolite and AIS, while recording ambient noise levels, we find that non-AIS vessels have a higher occurrence (83%) than AIS vessels, and that motorised recreational vessels can elevate third-octave band noise centred at 0.125, 2 and 16 kHz by 47-51 dB. Accordingly, these vessels dominated the soundscape in the study site due to their high numbers, high speeds and proximity to the coast. Furthermore, recreational vessels caused 49-85% of noise events potentially eliciting behavioural responses in harbour porpoises (AIS vessels caused 5-24%). We therefore conclude that AIS data would poorly predict vessel noise pollution and its impacts in this and other similar marine environments. We suggest to improve vessel noise models and impact assessments by requiring that faster and more powerful recreational vessels carry AIS-transmitters.

KW - BOTTLE-NOSED DOLPHINS

KW - COASTAL WATERS

KW - FREQUENCY NOISE

KW - IMPACTS

KW - PORPOISE PHOCOENA-PHOCOENA

KW - RADIATED NOISE

KW - SARASOTA BAY

KW - SHIP NOISE

KW - TURSIOPS-TRUNCATUS

KW - UNDERWATER

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85074279919&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1038/s41598-019-51222-9

DO - 10.1038/s41598-019-51222-9

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 31664060

VL - 9

JO - Scientific Reports

JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

IS - 1

M1 - 15477

ER -