Recovery of Gallium-68 and Zinc from HNO3-Based Solution by Liquid-Liquid Extraction with Arylamino Phosphonates

Fedor Zhuravlev*, Arif Gulzar, Lise Falborg

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

The cyclotron production of gallium-68 via the 68Zn(p,n)68Ga nuclear reaction in liquid targets is gaining significant traction in clinics. This work describes (1) the synthesis of new arylamino phosphonates via the Kabachnik-Fields reaction, (2) their use for liquid-liquid extraction of 68Ga from 1 M Zn(NO3)2/0.01 M HNO3 in batch and continuous flow, and (3) the use of Raman spectroscopy as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for in-line measurement of 68Zn. The highest extraction efficiencies were obtained with the extractants functionalized with trifluoromethyl substituents and ethylene glycol ponytails, which were able to extract up to 90% of gallium-68 in batch and 80% in flow. Only ppm amounts of zinc were co-extracted. The extraction efficiency was a function of pKa and the aqueous solubility of the extractant and showed marked concentration, solvent, and temperature dependence. Raman spectroscopy was found to be a promising PAT tool for the continuous production of gallium-68.

Original languageEnglish
Article number8377
JournalMolecules
Volume27
Issue23
Number of pages14
ISSN1420-3049
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022

Keywords

  • Gallium Radioisotopes/chemistry
  • Zinc/chemistry
  • Organophosphonates
  • Liquid-Liquid Extraction
  • Gallium

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