Quantum beat spectroscopy of repulsive Bose polarons

A. M. Morgen, S. S. Balling, K. Knakkergaard Nielsen, T. Pohl, G. M. Bruun, J. J. Arlt

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The physics of impurities in a bosonic quantum environment is a paradigmatic and challenging many-body problem that remains to be understood in its full complexity. Here, this problem is investigated for impurities with strong repulsive interactions based on Ramsey interferometry in a quantum degenerate gas of 39K atoms. We observe an oscillatory signal that is consistent with a quantum beat between two co-existing coherent quasiparticle states: the attractive and repulsive polarons. The interferometric signal allows us to extract the polaron energies for a wide range of interaction strengths, complimenting earlier spectroscopic measurements. We furthermore identify several dynamical regimes towards the formation of the Bose polaron in good agreement with theory. Our results improve the understanding of quantum impurities interacting strongly with a bosonic environment, and demonstrate how quasiparticles as well as short-lived non-equilibrium many-body states can be probed using Ramsey interferometry.
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 27 Oct 2023


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