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Psycho-social factors associated with mental resilience in the Corona lockdown

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  • Ilya M. Veer, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin
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  • Antje Riepenhausen, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin
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  • Matthias Zerban, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
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  • Carolin Wackerhagen, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin
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  • Lara M.C. Puhlmann, Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research, Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences
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  • Haakon Engen, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, University of Oslo
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  • Göran Köber, University of Freiburg
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  • Sophie A. Bögemann, Radboud University Nijmegen
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  • Jeroen Weermeijer, KU Leuven
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  • Aleksandra Uściłko, University of Warsaw
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  • Netali Mor, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University
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  • Marta A. Marciniak, University of Zurich
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  • Adrian Dahl Askelund, University of Oslo
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  • Abbas Al-Kamel, University of Bergamo
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  • Sarah Ayash, Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research
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  • Giulia Barsuola, Medical Research Council
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  • Vaida Bartkute-Norkuniene, Faculty of Business and Technologies at Utena University of Applied Sciences
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  • Simone Battaglia, University of Bologna
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  • Yaryna Bobko, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw
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  • Sven Bölte, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm Health Care Services, Curtin University
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  • Paolo Cardone, Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research
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  • Edita Chvojková, University of Amsterdam
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  • Kaja Damnjanović, University of Belgrade
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  • Joana De Calheiros Velozo, KU Leuven
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  • Lena de Thurah, KU Leuven
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  • Yacila I. Deza-Araujo, University of Geneva
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  • Annika Dimitrov, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin
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  • Kinga Farkas, Semmelweis University, Budapest University of Technology and Economics
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  • Clémence Feller, University of Geneva
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  • Mary Gazea, Concentris Research Management GmbH
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  • Donya Gilan, Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
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  • Vedrana Gnjidić, University of Zagreb
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  • Michal Hajduk, Comenius University, University in Bratislava
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  • Anu P. Hiekkaranta, KU Leuven
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  • Live S. Hofgaard, University of Oslo
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  • Laura Ilen, University of Geneva
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  • Zuzana Kasanova, KU Leuven
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  • Mohsen Khanpour, University of Tehran
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  • Bobo Hi Po Lau, Hong Kong Shue Yan University
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  • Dionne B. Lenferink, Radboud University Nijmegen
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  • Thomas B. Lindhardt
  • Dávid Magas, Budapest University of Technology and Economics
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  • Julian Mituniewicz, University of Warsaw
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  • Laura Moreno-López, University of Cambridge
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  • Sofiia Muzychka, University of Finance and Management in Warsaw
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  • Maria Ntafouli, University of Athens
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  • Aet O’Leary, Goethe University Frankfurt, University of Tartu
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  • Ilenia Paparella, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1
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  • Nele Põldver, University of Tartu
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  • Aki Rintala, KU Leuven, LAB University of Applied Sciences
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  • Natalia Robak, University of Warsaw
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  • Anna M. Rosická, Masaryk University
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  • Espen Røysamb, University of Oslo
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  • Siavash Sadeghi, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
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  • Maude Schneider, University of Geneva
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  • Roma Siugzdaite, Medical Research Council, Ghent University
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  • Mirta Stantić, University of Oxford
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  • Ana Teixeira, KU Leuven
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  • Ana Todorovic, University of Oxford
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  • Wendy W.N. Wan, Tunghai University
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  • Rolf van Dick, Goethe University Frankfurt
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  • Klaus Lieb, Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
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  • Birgit Kleim, University of Zurich
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  • Erno J. Hermans, Radboud University Nijmegen
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  • Dorota Kobylińska, University of Warsaw
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  • Talma Hendler, Tel Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, Tel Aviv University
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  • Harald Binder, University of Freiburg
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  • Inez Myin-Germeys, KU Leuven
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  • Judith M.C. van Leeuwen, Radboud University Nijmegen
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  • Oliver Tüscher, Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz
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  • Kenneth S.L. Yuen, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research
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  • Henrik Walter, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Humboldt University of Berlin
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  • Raffael Kalisch, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Leibniz Institute for Resilience Research

The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is not only a threat to physical health but is also having severe impacts on mental health. Although increases in stress-related symptomatology and other adverse psycho-social outcomes, as well as their most important risk factors have been described, hardly anything is known about potential protective factors. Resilience refers to the maintenance of mental health despite adversity. To gain mechanistic insights about the relationship between described psycho-social resilience factors and resilience specifically in the current crisis, we assessed resilience factors, exposure to Corona crisis-specific and general stressors, as well as internalizing symptoms in a cross-sectional online survey conducted in 24 languages during the most intense phase of the lockdown in Europe (22 March to 19 April) in a convenience sample of N = 15,970 adults. Resilience, as an outcome, was conceptualized as good mental health despite stressor exposure and measured as the inverse residual between actual and predicted symptom total score. Preregistered hypotheses (osf.io/r6btn) were tested with multiple regression models and mediation analyses. Results confirmed our primary hypothesis that positive appraisal style (PAS) is positively associated with resilience (p < 0.0001). The resilience factor PAS also partly mediated the positive association between perceived social support and resilience, and its association with resilience was in turn partly mediated by the ability to easily recover from stress (both p < 0.0001). In comparison with other resilience factors, good stress response recovery and positive appraisal specifically of the consequences of the Corona crisis were the strongest factors. Preregistered exploratory subgroup analyses (osf.io/thka9) showed that all tested resilience factors generalize across major socio-demographic categories. This research identifies modifiable protective factors that can be targeted by public mental health efforts in this and in future pandemics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number67
JournalTranslational Psychiatry
Volume11
Issue1
Number of pages11
ISSN2158-3188
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021

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