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Properties of OB star-black hole systems derived from detailed binary evolution models

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  • N. Langer, University of Bonn, Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
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  • C. Schürmann, University of Bonn, Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
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  • K. Stoll, University of Bonn
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  • P. Marchant, KU Leuven, Northwestern University
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  • D. J. Lennon, Instituto Astrofisico de Canarias, University of La Laguna
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  • L. Mahy, KU Leuven
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  • S. E. De Mink, Harvard University, University of Amsterdam
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  • M. Quast, University of Bonn
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  • W. Riedel, University of Bonn
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  • H. Sana, KU Leuven
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  • P. Schneider, University of Bonn
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  • A. Schootemeijer, University of Bonn
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  • C. Wang, University of Bonn
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  • L. A. Almeida, Universidade do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte
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  • J. M. Bestenlehner, University of Sheffield
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  • J. Bodensteiner, KU Leuven
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  • N. Castro, Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam
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  • S. Clark, Open University Milton Keynes
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  • P. A. Crowther, University of Sheffield
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  • P. Dufton, Queen's University Belfast
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  • C. J. Evans, UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory
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  • L. Fossati, Austrian Academy of Sciences
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  • G. Gräfener, University of Bonn
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  • L. Grassitelli, University of Bonn
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  • N. Grin, University of Bonn
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  • B. Hastings, University of Bonn
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  • A. Herrero, University of La Laguna
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  • A. De Koter, KU Leuven, University of Amsterdam
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  • A. Menon, University of Amsterdam
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  • L. Patrick, University of La Laguna
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  • J. Puls, Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich
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  • M. Renzo, University of Amsterdam, Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute
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  • A. A.C. Sander, Armagh Observatory
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  • F. R.N. Schneider, Heidelberg University , Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien
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  • K. Sen, University of Bonn, Max Planck Institute for Radio Astronomy
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  • T. Shenar, KU Leuven
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  • S. Simón-Diás, University of La Laguna
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  • T. M. Tauris
  • F. Tramper, National Observatory of Athens
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  • J. S. Vink, Armagh Observatory
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  • X. T. Xu, University of Bonn

Context. The recent gravitational wave measurements have demonstrated the existence of stellar mass black hole binaries. It is essential for our understanding of massive star evolution to identify the contribution of binary evolution to the formation of double black holes. Aims. A promising way to progress is investigating the progenitors of double black hole systems and comparing predictions with local massive star samples, such as the population in 30 Doradus in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Methods. With this purpose in mind, we analysed a large grid of detailed binary evolution models at LMC metallicity with initial primary masses between 10 and 40? M? , and identified the model systems that potentially evolve into a binary consisting of a black hole and a massive main-sequence star. We then derived the observable properties of such systems, as well as peculiarities of the OB star component. Results. We find that ∼3% of the LMC late-O and early-B stars in binaries are expected to possess a black hole companion when stars with a final helium core mass above 6.6? M? are assumed to form black holes. While the vast majority of them may be X-ray quiet, our models suggest that these black holes may be identified in spectroscopic binaries, either by large amplitude radial velocity variations (? 50 km s-1) and simultaneous nitrogen surface enrichment, or through a moderate radial velocity (? 10 km s-1) and simultaneous rapid rotation of the OB star. The predicted mass ratios are such that main-sequence companions can be excluded in most cases. A comparison to the observed OB+WR binaries in the LMC, Be and X-ray binaries, and known massive black hole binaries supports our conclusion. Conclusions. We expect spectroscopic observations to be able to test key assumptions in our models, with important implications for massive star evolution in general and for the formation of double black hole mergers in particular.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberA39
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume638
Number of pages18
ISSN0004-6361
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

    Research areas

  • Binaries: close, Stars: black holes, Stars: early-type, Stars: evolution, Stars: massive, Stars: rotation

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