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Printed dry electrode for neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) for e-textile

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  • Youssif Merhi
  • Pablo F. Betancur, Polytechnic University of Valencia
  • ,
  • Teresa S. Ripolles, Polytechnic University of Valencia
  • ,
  • Charlotte Suetta, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Morten R. Brage-Andersen, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Sofie K. Hansen, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Anders Frydenlund, University of Copenhagen
  • ,
  • Jens Vinge Nygaard
  • Peter H. Mikkelsen
  • Pablo P. Boix, Polytechnic University of Valencia
  • ,
  • Shweta Agarwala

Muscle atrophy is a well-known consequence of immobilization and critical illness, leading to prolonged rehabilitation and increased mortality. In this study, we develop a solution to preserve muscle mass using customized biocompatible neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) device. Commercially available NMES solutions with gel-based electrodes often lead to skin irritation. We demonstrate the printing of conducting electrodes on a compressive stocking textile that can be used for more than seven days without observing any inflammation. This solution consists of a dry and biocompatible electrode directly integrated into the textile with good mechanical compatibility with skin (Young's modulus of 0.39 MPa). The surface roughness of the underlying substrate plays a significant role in obtaining good print quality. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) analysis showed that the printed electrode showed better performance than the commercial ones based on a matched interfacial performance and improved series resistance. Furthermore, we investigated our NMES solution in a hospital setting to evaluate its effectiveness on muscle atrophy, with promising results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5337-5344
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

    Research areas

  • Electric Stimulation, Electrodes, Humans, Muscular Atrophy/therapy, Skin, Textiles

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