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Preadmission kidney function and risk of acute kidney injury in patients hospitalized with acute pyelonephritis: A Danish population-based cohort study

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Background and objectives Only few smaller studies have examined if impaired kidney function increases the risk of acute kidney injury in patients with acute pyelonephritis. Therefore, we estimated 30-day risk of acute kidney injury by preadmission kidney function in patients with acute pyelonephritis. Furthermore, we examined if impaired kidney function was a risk factor for development of acute kidney injury in pyelonephritis patients. Methods This cohort study included patients with a first-time hospitalization with pyelonephritis from 2000 to 2017. Preadmission kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <30, 30-44, 45-59, 60-89, and ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m2) and acute kidney injury within 30 days after admission were assessed using laboratory data on serum creatinine. The absolute 30- days risk of acute kidney injury was assessed treating death as a competing risk. The impact of eGFR on the odds of acute kidney injury was compared by odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals estimated using logistic regression adjusted for potential confounding factors. Results Among 8,760 patients with available data on preadmission kidney function, 25.8% had a preadmission eGFR <60. The 30-day risk of acute kidney injury was 16% among patients with preadmission eGFR ≥90 and increased to 22%, 33%, 42%, and 47% for patients with preadmission eGFR of 60-89, 45-59, 30-44, and <30 respectively. Compared with eGFR≥90, the adjusted ORs for the subgroups with eGFR 60-89, 45-59, 30-45, and <30 were 0.95, 1.32, 1.78, and 2.19 respectively. Conclusion Acute kidney injury is a common complication in patients hospitalized with acute pyelonephritis. Preadmission impaired kidney function is a strong risk factor for development of acute kidney injury in pyelonephritis patients and more attention should be raised in prevention of pyelonephritis in patients with a low kidney function.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0247687
JournalPLOS ONE
Volume16
Issue3
Number of pages14
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 Graversen et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Copyright:
Copyright 2021 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.

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