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Photobiological effects on ice algae of a rapid whole-fjord loss of snow cover during spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, a west Greenland fjord

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Photobiological effects on ice algae of a rapid whole-fjord loss of snow cover during spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, a west Greenland fjord. / Sorrell, Brian K.; Hawes, Ian; Stratmann, Tanja; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten.

In: Journal of Marine Science and Engineering, Vol. 9, No. 8, 814, 08.2021.

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@article{59ad926ac7864d2eae6c3a7a158c365e,
title = "Photobiological effects on ice algae of a rapid whole-fjord loss of snow cover during spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, a west Greenland fjord",
abstract = "Snow cover on sea ice is the most important factor controlling light availability for sea ice algae, but it is predicted by climate models to become more variable and stochastic. Here, we document effects of a sudden, complete loss of the entire snow cover on first-year sea ice at Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland, due to a natural F{\"o}hn wind event that caused a ca. 17◦ C air temperature increase over 36 h. We applied Imaging-PAM fluorometry to examine effects of snow cover on algal distribution and photobiology and observed a rapid decrease in algal biomass associated with loss of the skeletal ice crystal layer on the underside of the ice that had supported most of the visible algae. Furthermore, the remaining algae were photobiologically stressed, as seen in a significant decrease in the dark-acclimated fluorescence yield (ΦPSII_max) from 0.55 before snow loss to 0.41 after. However, recovery in the dark suggested that non-photosynthetic quenching was successfully dissipating excess energy in the community and that there was little photodamage. An observed decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency α from 0.22 to 0.16 µmol {\'e} m−2 s−1 is therefore likely to be due to photoacclimation and the change in community composition. Centric diatoms and flagellates were the main taxa lost in the snow loss event, whereas the sea ice specialist Nitzschia frigida increased in numbers. These observations are similar to those seen in artificial snow-clearing experiments and consistent with snow clearing being a useful approach for investigating the complex interactions between snow cover, irradiance fluctuations, and ice algal performance.",
keywords = "Greenland, Ice algae, Optics, Photobiology, Snow cover, Stress",
author = "Sorrell, {Brian K.} and Ian Hawes and Tanja Stratmann and Lund-Hansen, {Lars Chresten}",
note = "Publisher Copyright: {\textcopyright} 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.",
year = "2021",
month = aug,
doi = "10.3390/jmse9080814",
language = "English",
volume = "9",
journal = "Journal of Marine Science and Engineering",
issn = "2077-1312",
publisher = "MDPI AG",
number = "8",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Photobiological effects on ice algae of a rapid whole-fjord loss of snow cover during spring growth in Kangerlussuaq, a west Greenland fjord

AU - Sorrell, Brian K.

AU - Hawes, Ian

AU - Stratmann, Tanja

AU - Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten

N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

PY - 2021/8

Y1 - 2021/8

N2 - Snow cover on sea ice is the most important factor controlling light availability for sea ice algae, but it is predicted by climate models to become more variable and stochastic. Here, we document effects of a sudden, complete loss of the entire snow cover on first-year sea ice at Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland, due to a natural Föhn wind event that caused a ca. 17◦ C air temperature increase over 36 h. We applied Imaging-PAM fluorometry to examine effects of snow cover on algal distribution and photobiology and observed a rapid decrease in algal biomass associated with loss of the skeletal ice crystal layer on the underside of the ice that had supported most of the visible algae. Furthermore, the remaining algae were photobiologically stressed, as seen in a significant decrease in the dark-acclimated fluorescence yield (ΦPSII_max) from 0.55 before snow loss to 0.41 after. However, recovery in the dark suggested that non-photosynthetic quenching was successfully dissipating excess energy in the community and that there was little photodamage. An observed decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency α from 0.22 to 0.16 µmol é m−2 s−1 is therefore likely to be due to photoacclimation and the change in community composition. Centric diatoms and flagellates were the main taxa lost in the snow loss event, whereas the sea ice specialist Nitzschia frigida increased in numbers. These observations are similar to those seen in artificial snow-clearing experiments and consistent with snow clearing being a useful approach for investigating the complex interactions between snow cover, irradiance fluctuations, and ice algal performance.

AB - Snow cover on sea ice is the most important factor controlling light availability for sea ice algae, but it is predicted by climate models to become more variable and stochastic. Here, we document effects of a sudden, complete loss of the entire snow cover on first-year sea ice at Kangerlussuaq Fjord, West Greenland, due to a natural Föhn wind event that caused a ca. 17◦ C air temperature increase over 36 h. We applied Imaging-PAM fluorometry to examine effects of snow cover on algal distribution and photobiology and observed a rapid decrease in algal biomass associated with loss of the skeletal ice crystal layer on the underside of the ice that had supported most of the visible algae. Furthermore, the remaining algae were photobiologically stressed, as seen in a significant decrease in the dark-acclimated fluorescence yield (ΦPSII_max) from 0.55 before snow loss to 0.41 after. However, recovery in the dark suggested that non-photosynthetic quenching was successfully dissipating excess energy in the community and that there was little photodamage. An observed decrease in the photosynthetic efficiency α from 0.22 to 0.16 µmol é m−2 s−1 is therefore likely to be due to photoacclimation and the change in community composition. Centric diatoms and flagellates were the main taxa lost in the snow loss event, whereas the sea ice specialist Nitzschia frigida increased in numbers. These observations are similar to those seen in artificial snow-clearing experiments and consistent with snow clearing being a useful approach for investigating the complex interactions between snow cover, irradiance fluctuations, and ice algal performance.

KW - Greenland

KW - Ice algae

KW - Optics

KW - Photobiology

KW - Snow cover

KW - Stress

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85111705367&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/jmse9080814

DO - 10.3390/jmse9080814

M3 - Journal article

AN - SCOPUS:85111705367

VL - 9

JO - Journal of Marine Science and Engineering

JF - Journal of Marine Science and Engineering

SN - 2077-1312

IS - 8

M1 - 814

ER -