PalmGazer: Unimanual Eye-hand Menus in Augmented Reality

Ken Pfeuffer*, Jan Obernolte, Felix Dietz, Ville Mäkelä, Ludwig Sidenmark, Pavel Manakhov, Minna Pakanen, Florian Alt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/proceedingArticle in proceedingsResearchpeer-review


How can we design the user interfaces for augmented reality (AR) so that we can interact as simple, flexible and expressive as we can with smartphones in one hand? To explore this question, we propose PalmGazer as an interaction concept integrating eye-hand interaction to establish a singlehandedly operable menu system. In particular, PalmGazer is designed to support quick and spontaneous digital commands– such as to play a music track, check notifications or browse visual media – through our devised three-way interaction model: hand opening to summon the menu UI, eye-hand input for selection of items, and dragging gesture for navigation. A key aspect is that it remains always-accessible and movable to the user, as the menu supports meaningful hand and head based reference frames. We demonstrate the concept in practice through a prototypical mobile UI with application probes, and describe technique designs specifically-tailored to the application UI. A qualitative evaluation highlights the system’s interaction benefits and drawbacks, e.g., that common 2D scroll and selection tasks are simple to operate, but higher degrees of freedom may be reserved for two hands. Our work contributes interaction techniques and design insights to expand AR’s uni-manual capabilities.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSUI '23 : Proceedings of the 2023 ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction
EditorsTony Huang, Misha Sra, Ferran Argelaguet
Number of pages12
Place of publicationSydney
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
Publication dateOct 2023
Article number11
ISBN (Electronic)979-8-4007-0281-5
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023
EventThe 2023 ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction - SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA, Sydney, Australia
Duration: 13 Oct 202315 Oct 2023


ConferenceThe 2023 ACM Symposium on Spatial User Interaction
Internet address


  • augmented reality
  • menu
  • gaze
  • gestures
  • eye-hand interaction


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