Oral 3-hydroxybutyrate ingestion decreases endogenous glucose production, lipolysis, and hormone-sensitive lipase phosphorylation in adipose tissue in men: a human randomized, controlled, crossover trial

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Aims: To test whether oral administration of D/L-3-hydroxybutyrate as a sodium salt inhibits lipolysis and intracellular lipid signalling, in particular, hormone-sensitive lipase, and whether D/L-3-hydroxybutyrate alters endogenous glucose production. Methods: We studied six young men in a randomized, controlled, crossover study after ingestion of Na-D/L-3-hydroxybutyrate (hyperketotic condition) or saline (placebo control). We quantified lipolysis and endogenous glucose production using [9,10-3H]-palmitate and [3-3H]glucose tracers, and adipose tissue biopsies were collected to investigate key lipolytic enzymes. Results: After ingestion, D/L-3-hydroxybutyrate increased by more than 2.5 mmol/l, free fatty acid concentrations decreased by >70%, and palmitate rate of appearance was halved. Protein kinase A phosphorylation of perilipin was reduced and hormone-sensitive lipase 660 phosphorylation in adipose tissue biopsies was 70–80% decreased in the hyperketotic condition and unchanged in the control. Compared to the control, endogenous glucose production was reduced by close to 20% (P<0.05) after 3-hydroxybutyrate ingestion. Conclusion: We conclude that oral D/L-Na-3-hydroxybutyrate increases D/L-3-hydroxybutyrate concentrations within half an hour, decreases free fatty acid concentrations, lowers lipolysis and endogenous glucose production, and dephosphorylates hormone-sensitive lipase. Collectively these phenomena may be viewed as an orchestrated feedback loop, controlling endogenous glucose production, lipolysis and ketogenesis. Such effects would be beneficial in insulin-resistant states. (www.clinicaltrials.gov ID number: NCT02917252).

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere14385
JournalDiabetic Medicine
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

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