Non-equilibrium dynamics of quantum impurities

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Advancing our understanding of non-equilibrium phenomena in quantum many-body systems remains among the greatest challenges in physics. Here, we report on the experimental observation of a paradigmatic many-body problem, namely the non-equilibrium dynamics of a quantum impurity immersed in a bosonic environment. The impurity is created and monitored using an interferometric technique in a quantum degenerate gas. Thus we are able to trace the complete impurity evolution from its initial generation to the ultimate emergence of quasiparticle properties, forming the Bose polaron. These results offer a first systematic picture of polaron formation from weak to strong impurity interactions. They reveal three distinct regimes of evolution with dynamical transitions that provide a link between few-body processes and many-body dynamics. Our measurements reveal universal dynamical behavior in interacting many-body systems and demonstrate new pathways to study non-equilibrium quantum phenomena.
Original languageEnglish
JournalarXiv
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 1 May 2020

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