New Aspects of Earthworm Innate Immunity: Novel Molecules and Old Proteins With Unexpected Functions

Péter Engelmann, Yuya Hayashi, Kornélia Bodó, László Molnár

    Research output: Contribution to book/anthology/report/proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


    The first exploration of earthworm immunity dates back almost the third quarter of a century. Since then, our journey has led to the discovery of several key biomolecules, some of which are common to invertebrates while some are rather specific to annelids. In light of these findings, we present the new aspects of earthworm immunity in an attempt to foresee potential research directions. We begin with a concise introduction before we discuss the newly described earthworm Toll receptors and their implications. Another key protein, lysenin, has historically been a popular target of research, yet its role in immunity remains obscured. We discuss, on the basis of our novel findings, how lysenin contributes to nanoparticle recognition in coelomocytes. The unique and conserved recognition strategies reviewed here have certainly opened up new research avenues and potentially harbor an intriguing clue for better elucidating the vertebrate immune response toward various antigens.

    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationLessons in Immunity : From Single-Cell Organisms to Mammals
    EditorsLoriano Ballarin, Matteo Cammarata
    Number of pages14
    Publication date8 Apr 2016
    ISBN (Print)9780128032527
    ISBN (Electronic)9780128032527
    Publication statusPublished - 8 Apr 2016


    • Antimicrobial activity
    • Coelomocyte
    • Invertebrate immunity
    • Lysenin
    • Nanoparticle
    • Opsonization
    • Pattern recognition receptor
    • Protein corona
    • Toll


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