Mutational Analysis of Field Cancerization in Bladder Cancer

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BACKGROUND: Morphologically normal tissue, adjacent to tumors, contains multiple molecular changes, the so-called field cancerization. The multifocal and recurrent nature of bladder cancer has been hypothesized to originate from this. However, further studies are required to explore the mutational composition of normal tissue adjacent to tumors. OBJECTIVE: To analyze field cancerization in bladder cancer patients using a non-tumor guided approach. METHODS:We investigated the mutational landscape of normal appearing urothelium and paired bladder tumors from four patients by applying deep-targeted sequencing. RESULTS: Sequencing of 509 cancer driver genes revealed the presence of 2–13 mutations exclusively localized in normal tissue (average target read depth 634×). Furthermore, 6–13 mutations were shared between tumor and normal samples and 8–75 mutations were exclusively detected in tumor samples. More mutations were observed in normal samples from patients with multifocal disease compared to patients with unifocal disease. Mutations in normal samples had lower variant allele fractions (VAF) compared to tumor mutations (p < 2.2*10–16). Furthermore, significant differences in the type of nucleotide changes between tumor, normal and shared mutations (p = 2.2*10–5) were observed, and mutations in APOBEC context were observed primarily among tumor mutations (p = 0.02). No differences in functional impact between normal, shared and tumor mutations were observed (p = 0.61). CONCLUSION: Overall, these findings support the presence of more than one field in the bladder, and document non-tumor specific driver mutations to be present in normal appearing bladder tissue.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBladder Cancer
Volume6
Issue3
Pages (from-to)253-264
Number of pages12
ISSN2352-3727
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Sep 2020

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