Molecular engineering of nanobodies as tools in allergology: diagnostics and beyond

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Background: Molecular technologies have paved the way to improved understanding of allergic diseases in many ways, ranging from molecular allergens to tailor-made tools for analytical, diagnostic, and therapeutic purposes. Engineering of such molecules has become a mainstay in most biotechnical and biomedical areas. A not so new kid on the block is the nanobody, a single-domain antibody obtained from primarily camelid species. Despite their large promise and potential, it took nanobodies a long time to also enter the stage in allergology. Methods: This review summarizes the state of the art and the feasibility of engineering nanobody-based tools for applications in allergology. Results: In recent years, nanobodies with specificity for allergens have been increasingly generated. In parallel, their molecular engineering has enabled the development of derivatives that offer many advantages compared to standard antibody approaches. Hence, different application forms of nanobody-based molecules have been developed and reported in proof-of-concept studies. Discussion: Recent studies give a first glimpse of the future possibilities of nanobody technologies in a complex system such as allergic diseases. It has become clear that the simplicity of the approaches as compared to regular antibody technologies will both broaden and deepen the scope of applications in allergology.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAllergo Journal International
Pages (from-to)240-250
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


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