Metabolic maturation in the infant urine during the first 3 months of life

Julie Astono, Ulrik Kræmer Sundekilde, Katrine Overgaard Poulsen, Rikke A. Larsen, Emma V. Jessen, Chatrine B. Sand, Morten A. Rasmussen

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The infant urine metabolome provides a body metabolic snapshot, and the sample collection can be done without stressing the fragile infant. 424 infant urine samples from 157 infants were sampled longitudinally at 1-, 2-, and 3 months of age. 49 metabolites were detected using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Data were analyzed with multi- and univariate statistical methods to detect differences related to infant age-stage, gestational age, mother’s pre-pregnancy BMI, C-section, infant birth weight, and infant sex. Significant differences were identified between age-stage (pbonferoni < 0.05) in 30% (15/49) of the detected metabolites. Urine creatinine increased significantly from 1 to 3 months. In addition, myo-inositol, taurine, methionine, and glucose seem to have conserved levels within the individual over time. We calculated a urine metabolic maturation age and found that the metabolic age at 3 months is negatively correlated to weight at 1 year. These results demonstrate that the metabolic maturation can be observed in urine metabolome with implications on infant growth and specifically suggesting that the systematic age effect on creatinine promotes caution in using this as normalization of other urine metabolites.
Translated title of the contributionMetabolsk modning i spædbarnet gennem de første 3 måneder af livet
Original languageEnglish
Article number5697
JournalScientific Reports
IssueArticle number: 5697 (2024)
Publication statusPublished - 8 Mar 2024


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