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Metabolic Factors, Lifestyle Habits, and Possible Polyneuropathy in Early Type 2 Diabetes: A Nationwide Study of 5,249 Patients in the Danish Centre for Strategic Research in Type 2 Diabetes (DD2) Cohort

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OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of metabolic and lifestyle factors with possible diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN) and neuropathic pain in patients with early type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We thoroughly characterized 6,726 patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. After a median of 2.8 years, we sent a detailed questionnaire on neuropathy, including the Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument questionnaire (MNSIq), to identify possible DPN (score ≥4) and the Douleur Neuropathique en 4 Questions (DN4) questionnaire for possible associated neuropathic pain (MNSIq ≥4 + pain in both feet + DN4 score ≥3). RESULTS: Among 5,249 patients with data on both DPN and pain, 17.9% (n = 938) had possible DPN, including 7.4% (n = 386) with possible neuropathic pain. In regression analyses, central obesity (waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio) was markedly associated with DPN. Other important metabolic factors associated with DPN included hypertriglyceridemia ≥1.7 mmol/L, adjusted prevalence ratio (aPR) 1.36 (95% CI 1.17; 1.59); decreased HDL cholesterol <1.0/1.2 mmol/L (male/female), aPR 1.35 (95% CI 1.12; 1.62); hs-CRP ≥3.0 mg/L, aPR 1.66 (95% CI 1.42; 1.94); C-peptide ≥1,550 pmol/L, aPR 1.72 (95% CI 1.43; 2.07); HbA1c ≥78 mmol/mol, aPR 1.42 (95% CI 1.06; 1.88); and antihypertensive drug use, aPR 1.34 (95% CI 1.16; 1.55). Smoking, aPR 1.50 (95% CI 1.24; 1.81), and lack of physical activity (0 vs. ≥3 days/week), aPR 1.61 (95% CI 1.39; 1.85), were also associated with DPN. Smoking, high alcohol intake, and failure to increase activity after diabetes diagnosis associated with neuropathic pain. CONCLUSIONS: Possible DPN was associated with metabolic syndrome factors, insulin resistance, inflammation, and modifiable lifestyle habits in early type 2 diabetes.

Original languageEnglish
JournalDiabetes Care
Pages (from-to)1266-1275
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020

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