Mean dietary salt intake in Nepal: A population survey with 24-hour urine collections

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DOI

  • Dinesh Neupane, Nepal Development Society, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal., Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
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  • Anupa Rijal, Cardiology Section, Department of Internal Medicine , Holbaek Hospital , Holbaek , Denmark.
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  • Megan E Henry, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
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  • Per Kallestrup
  • Bhagawan Koirala, Manmohan Cardiothoracic Vascular and Transplant Center, Institute of Medicine, Tribhuvan University, Kathmandu, Nepal.
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  • Craig S Mclachlan, School of Health, Torrens University, Sydney, NSW, Australia.
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  • Kamal Ghimire, Nepal Development Society, Bharatpur, Chitwan, Nepal.
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  • Di Zhao, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.
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  • Shailendra Sharma, Department of Medicine, The George Washington University, Washington, DC, USA.
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  • Yashashwi Pokharel, Saint Luke's Mid America Heart Institute and the University of Missouri-Kansas City, Kansas City, MO, USA.
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  • Kristy Joseph, Global Noncommunicable Disease Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA.
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  • Michael Hecht Olsen, Department of Regional Health Research, University of Southern Denmark, Odense
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  • Aletta E Schutte, Hypertension in Africa Research Team, South African Medical Research Council, North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa.
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  • Lawrence J Appel, Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA.

High salt (sodium chloride) intake raises blood pressure and increases the risk of developing hypertension, a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Little is known about salt intake in Nepal, and no study has estimated salt consumption from 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Participants (n = 451) were recruited from the Community-Based Management of Non-Communicable Diseases in Nepal (COBIN) cohort in 2018. Salt intake was estimated by analyzing 24-hour urinary sodium excretion. Multivariate linear regression was used to estimate differences in salt intake. The mean (±SD) age and salt intake were 49.6 (±9.8) years and 13.3 (±4.7) g/person/d, respectively. Higher salt intake was significantly associated with male gender (β for female = -2.4; 95% CI: -3.3, -1.4) and younger age (β10 years = -1.4; 95% CI: -1.4, -0.5) and higher BMI (β = 0.1; 95% CI: 0.0, 0.2). A significant association was also found between increase in systolic blood pressure and higher salt intake (β = 0.3; 95% CI: 0.0, 0.7). While 55% reported that they consumed just the right amount of salt, 98% were consuming more than the WHO recommended salt amount (<5 g/person/d). Daily salt intake in this population was over twice the limit recommended by the WHO, suggesting a substantial need to reduce salt intake in this population. It also supports the need of global initiatives such as WHO's Global Hearts Initiative SHAKE technical package and Resolves to Save Lives for sodium reduction in low- and middle-income countries like Nepal.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Clinical Hypertension
Volume22
Issue2
Pages (from-to)273-279
ISSN1524-6175
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020

    Research areas

  • 24-hour urinary sodium excretion, hypertension, nutrition, population studies, salt intake, sodium

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