Matrix Redox Physiology Governs the Regulation of Plant Mitochondrial Metabolism through Post-Translational Protein Modifications

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  • Ian Max Møller
  • Abir U Igamberdiev, Memorial University of Newfoundland CITY: St. John's STATE: NL POSTAL_CODE: A1B 3X9 Canada [CA].
  • ,
  • Natalia V Bykova, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Morden Research and Development Centre CITY: Morden STATE: Mannitoba Canada [CA].
  • ,
  • Iris Finkemeier, University of Muenster CITY: Muenster POSTAL_CODE: 48149 Germany [DE].
  • ,
  • Allan G Rasmusson, Lund University CITY: Lund POSTAL_CODE: SE-22362 Sweden [SE].
  • ,
  • Markus Schwarzländer, Westfälische-Wilhelms-Universität Münster CITY: Münster STATE: North Rhine-Westphalia POSTAL_CODE: 48143 Germany [DE].

Mitochondria function as hubs of plant metabolism. Oxidative phosphorylation produces ATP, but it is also a central high-capacity electron sink required by many metabolic pathways that must be flexibly coordinated and integrated. Here, we review the crucial roles of redox-associated posttranslational protein modifications (PTMs) in mitochondrial metabolic regulation. We discuss several major concepts. First, the major redox couples in the mitochondrial matrix (NAD, NADP, thioredoxin, glutathione, and ascorbate) are in kinetic steady state rather than thermodynamic equilibrium. Second, targeted proteomics have produced long lists of proteins potentially regulated by Cys oxidation/thioredoxin, Met-SO formation, phosphorylation, or Lys acetylation, but we currently only understand the functional importance of a few of these PTMs. Some site modifications may represent molecular noise caused by spurious reactions. Third, different PTMs on the same protein or on different proteins in the same metabolic pathway can interact to fine-tune metabolic regulation. Fourth, PTMs take part in the repair of stress-induced damage (e.g., by reducing Met and Cys oxidation products) as well as adjusting metabolic functions in response to environmental variation, such as changes in light irradiance or oxygen availability. Finally, PTMs form a multidimensional regulatory system that provides the speed and flexibility needed for mitochondrial coordination far beyond that provided by changes in nuclear gene expression alone.

Original languageEnglish
JournalThe Plant Cell
Pages (from-to)573-594
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020

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