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Mapping public support for the varieties of differentiated integration

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  • Julian Schüssler
  • Max Heermann, University of Konstanz
  • ,
  • Dirk Leuffen, University of Konstanz
  • ,
  • Lisanne de Blok, Utrecht University
  • ,
  • Catherine de Vries, Bocconi University

This article maps and investigates public support for different types of differentiated integration (DI) in the European Union. We examine citizens’ preferences for DI using novel survey data from eight EU member states. The data reveals substantive differences in support for different types of DI. Factor analyses reveal two dimensions that seem to structure citizens’ evaluations of DI. The first dimension relates to the effect of DI on the European integration project, the second concerns the safeguarding of national autonomy. Citizens’ attitudes on this second dimension vary substantively across countries. General EU support is the most important correlate of DI support, correlating positively with the first and negatively with the second dimension. Our results underline that while citizens generally care about the fairness of DI, balancing out their different concerns can be a challenging political task.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Union Politics
Pages (from-to)164-183
Number of pages20
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

    Research areas

  • Core Europe, differentiated integration, factor analysis, public opinion, two-speed Europe

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