Caseins, caseinates and micellar caseins are widely used as ingredients in many food and non-food applications. Separation of caseins from the remaining milk constituents (mainly whey proteins, lactose, minerals) can be achieved by selective precipitation using acid or rennet, or by applying membrane filtration techniques. With membrane filtration, the original structure of the casein micelles can be maintained to a large extent. In recent years, the fractionation of the major casein types (i.e., αs-, β- and κ-casein), as well as the targeted modulation of the techno-functional and digestive properties of casein ingredients, have been the targets of increasing interest.
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