Management of unilateral craniofacial microsomia with orthopaedic functional appliances: A systematic literature review

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperReviewResearchpeer-review


The study aimed to summarize current knowledge regarding the use of orthopaedic functional appliances (OFA) in managing unilateral craniofacial microsomia (UCM). The eligibility criteria for the review were (1) assessing use of OFA as a stand-alone treatment and (2) using OFA in combination during or after MDO. The PICO (population, intervention, comparison and outcome) format formulated clinical questions with defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. No limitations concerning language and publication year were applied. Information sources: A literature search of Medline, Scopus, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science databases without restrictions up to 30 September 2022. The risk of bias was assessed. According to Cochrane and PRISMA guidelines, two independent authors conducted data extraction. The level of evidence for included articles was evaluated based on the Oxford evidence-based medicine database. Due to the heterogeneity of studies and insufficient data for statistical pooling, meta-analysis was not feasible. Therefore, the results were synthesized narratively. A total of 437 articles were retrieved. Of these, nine met inclusion criteria: five assessing OFA and four assessing OFA during or after MDO. There is limited evidence to suggest that stand-alone and combination treatment with OFA is beneficial for treating mild-to-moderate UCM-related dentofacial deformities in short term. No studies assessed the burden of care. In the management of UCM, there is insufficient evidence supporting the efficacy of OFA as a stand-alone treatment or when combined with MDO. Additionally, there is a lack of evidence regarding treatment protocols and the effect on the condyles and the TMJ. The study was registered at Prospero database number CRD42020204969.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOrthodontics & Craniofacial Research
Pages (from-to)131-140
Number of pages10
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2024


  • Goldenhar Syndrome/therapy
  • Humans
  • Orthodontic Appliances, Functional


Dive into the research topics of 'Management of unilateral craniofacial microsomia with orthopaedic functional appliances: A systematic literature review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this