The first hyperpolarizability (β) of two different sizes (15 and 35 nm) of carbonaceous nanoparticle (CNP) is reported for the first time using second harmonic light scattering (SHLS). The β values of the CNPs were found to be larger than those of organic molecules like pNA but lower than those of plasmonic nanoparticles like gold and silver. SHLS was further used to investigate the adsorption of a model protein Lysozyme (Lyz) on these CNPs, which is crucial for the design of safe and effective CNP-based therapeutics. The change in SH intensity from the CNPs on the addition of Lyz was recorded and fitted to the modified Langmuir adsorption model (MLM). The binding constant, free energy changes and surface coverage values show that Lyz is physisorbed on the CNPs forming less than a monolayer. The temperature dependent SH intensity measurements enabled direct determination of enthalpy and entropy changes for Lyz adsorption. The enthalpy and entropy changes reveal that Lyz adsorption is endothermic and entropically driven.