Long-term exposure to fine particle elemental components and lung cancer incidence in the ELAPSE pooled cohort

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

  • Ulla Arthur Hvidtfeldt, Danish Cancer Society Research Center, The Danish Cancer Society, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Jie Chen, Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht, Netherlands
  • Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Denmark
  • Richard Atkinson, Population Health Research Institute and MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, St George’s, University of London, London, UK, United Kingdom
  • Mariska Bauwelinck, Interface Demography – Department of Sociology, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium, Belgium
  • Tom Bellander, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Sweden
  • Jørgen Brandt
  • Bert Brunekreef, Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht, Netherlands
  • Giulia Cesaroni, Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy., Italy
  • Hans Concin, Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria., Austria
  • Daniela Fecht, UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit, MRC Centre for Environment and Health, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, United Kingdom
  • Francesco Forastiere, Institute for Biomedical Research and Innovation (IRIB), National Research Council, Palermo, Environmental Research Group, Imperial College London, Italy
  • Carla H van Gils, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Netherlands
  • John Gulliver, Centre for Environmental Health and Sustainability & School of Geography, Geology and the Environment, University of Leicester, United Kingdom
  • Ole Hertel
  • Gerard Hoek, Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht, Netherlands
  • Barbara Hoffmann, Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University, Dusseldorf, Germany
  • Kees de Hoogh, Swiss Tropical and Public Health Institute, Basel, Switzerland; University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland., Switzerland
  • Nicole Janssen, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Netherlands
  • Jeanette Therming Jørgensen, Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Denmark
  • Klea Katsouyanni, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, NIHR HPRU Health Impact of Environmental Hazards, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, Greece
  • Karl-Heinz Jöckel, Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147, Essen, Germany., Germany
  • Matthias Ketzel
  • Jochem O Klompmaker, Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht, Institute for Medical Informatics, Biometry and Epidemiology, University Hospital Essen, University of Duisburg-Essen, 45147, Essen, Germany., Netherlands
  • Alois Lang, Cancer Registry Vorarlberg, Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Austria
  • Karin Leander, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden
  • Shuo Liu, Section of Environmental Health, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, Denmark
  • Petter L S Ljungman, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Department of Cardiology, Danderyd University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden
  • Patrik K E Magnusson, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden
  • Amar Jayant Mehta, Statistics Denmark, Department of Public Health, Section of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, 1353K, Copenhagen, Denmark., Denmark
  • Gabriele Nagel, Ulm Univ, Ulm University, Agency for Preventive and Social Medicine, Bregenz, Austria., Germany
  • Bente Oftedal, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
  • Göran Pershagen, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Center for Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Region Stockholm, Sweden
  • Raphael Simon Peter, Ulm Univ, Ulm University, Germany
  • Annette Peters, Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Centre for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany., Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, Germany
  • Matteo Renzi, Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy., Italy
  • Debora Rizzuto, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet; Stockholm Gerontology Research Center; and Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden., Sweden
  • Sophia Rodopoulou, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
  • Evangelia Samoli, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Greece
  • Per Everhard Schwarze, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, Norway
  • Gianluca Severi, University of Florence, Florence, CESP INSERM UMRS 1018, Villejuif Cedex, France., Italy
  • Torben Sigsgaard
  • Massimo Stafoggia, Karolinska Univ Hosp, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Department of Epidemiology, Lazio Regional Health Service, Rome, Italy., Sweden
  • Maciej Strak, Institute of Risk Assessment Sciences, University of Utrecht, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Netherlands
  • Danielle Vienneau, University of Basel, Basel, Switzerland, National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM), Bilthoven, Switzerland
  • Gudrun Weinmayr, Ulm Univ, Ulm University, Germany
  • Kathrin Wolf, Institute of Epidemiology, Helmholtz Zentrum München-German Research Centre for Environmental Health, D-85764 Neuherberg, Germany., Germany
  • Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

BACKGROUND: An association between long-term exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and lung cancer has been established in previous studies. PM2.5 is a complex mixture of chemical components from various sources and little is known about whether certain components contribute specifically to the associated lung cancer risk. The present study builds on recent findings from the "Effects of Low-level Air Pollution: A Study in Europe" (ELAPSE) collaboration and addresses the potential association between specific elemental components of PM2.5 and lung cancer incidence.

METHODS: We pooled seven cohorts from across Europe and assigned exposure estimates for eight components of PM2.5 representing non-tail pipe emissions (copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn)), long-range transport (sulfur (S)), oil burning/industry emissions (nickel (Ni), vanadium (V)), crustal material (silicon (Si)), and biomass burning (potassium (K)) to cohort participants' baseline residential address based on 100 m by 100 m grids from newly developed hybrid models combining air pollution monitoring, land use data, satellite observations, and dispersion model estimates. We applied stratified Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for potential confounders (age, sex, calendar year, marital status, smoking, body mass index, employment status, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status).

RESULTS: The pooled study population comprised 306,550 individuals with 3,916 incident lung cancer events during 5,541,672 person-years of follow-up. We observed a positive association between exposure to all eight components and lung cancer incidence, with adjusted HRs of 1.10 (95% CI 1.05, 1.16) per 50 ng/m3 PM2.5 K, 1.09 (95% CI 1.02, 1.15) per 1 ng/m3 PM2.5 Ni, 1.22 (95% CI 1.11, 1.35) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 S, and 1.07 (95% CI 1.02, 1.12) per 200 ng/m3 PM2.5 V. Effect estimates were largely unaffected by adjustment for nitrogen dioxide (NO2). After adjustment for PM2.5 mass, effect estimates of K, Ni, S, and V were slightly attenuated, whereas effect estimates of Cu, Si, Fe, and Zn became null or negative.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results point towards an increased risk of lung cancer in connection with sources of combustion particles from oil and biomass burning and secondary inorganic aerosols rather than non-exhaust traffic emissions. Specific limit values or guidelines targeting these specific PM2.5 components may prove helpful in future lung cancer prevention strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number110568
JournalEnvironmental Research
Volume193
Number of pages10
ISSN0013-9351
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021

    Research areas

  • air pollution, elemental components, fine particulate matter, lung cancer incidence, pooled cohort

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