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Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra

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Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra. / Assmann, Jakob; Myers-Smith, Isla H.; Phillimore, Albert B.; Björkman, Anne D. ; Ennos, Richard E.; Prevey, Janet; Henry, Gregory H. R.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Hollister, Robert D.

In: Global Change Biology, Vol. 25, No. 7, 07.2019, p. 2258–2274.

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Harvard

Assmann, J, Myers-Smith, IH, Phillimore, AB, Björkman, AD, Ennos, RE, Prevey, J, Henry, GHR, Schmidt, NM & Hollister, RD 2019, 'Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra', Global Change Biology, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 2258–2274. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14639

APA

Assmann, J., Myers-Smith, I. H., Phillimore, A. B., Björkman, A. D., Ennos, R. E., Prevey, J., Henry, G. H. R., Schmidt, N. M., & Hollister, R. D. (2019). Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra. Global Change Biology, 25(7), 2258–2274. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14639

CBE

Assmann J, Myers-Smith IH, Phillimore AB, Björkman AD, Ennos RE, Prevey J, Henry GHR, Schmidt NM, Hollister RD. 2019. Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra. Global Change Biology. 25(7):2258–2274. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14639

MLA

Vancouver

Assmann J, Myers-Smith IH, Phillimore AB, Björkman AD, Ennos RE, Prevey J et al. Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra. Global Change Biology. 2019 Jul;25(7):2258–2274. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.14639

Author

Assmann, Jakob ; Myers-Smith, Isla H. ; Phillimore, Albert B. ; Björkman, Anne D. ; Ennos, Richard E. ; Prevey, Janet ; Henry, Gregory H. R. ; Schmidt, Niels Martin ; Hollister, Robert D. / Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra. In: Global Change Biology. 2019 ; Vol. 25, No. 7. pp. 2258–2274.

Bibtex

@article{ab472a87ac12481a98889fc8e5564b07,
title = "Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra",
abstract = "The Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change with rapidly rising surface temperatures, accelerating sea ice decline and changing snow regimes, all of which influence tundra plant phenology. Despite these changes, no globally consistent direction of trends in spring phenology has been reported across the Arctic. While spring has advanced at some sites, spring has delayed or not changed at other sites, highlighting substantial unexplained variation. Here, we test the relative importance of local temperatures, local snow melt date and regional spring drop in sea ice extent as controls of variation in spring phenology across different sites and species. Trends in long-term time series of spring leaf-out and flowering (average span: 18 years) were highly variable for the 14 tundra species monitored at our four study sites on the Arctic coasts of Alaska, Canada and Greenland, ranging from advances of 10.06 days per decade to delays of 1.67 days per decade. Spring temperatures and the day of spring drop in sea ice extent advanced at all sites (average 1°C per decade and 21 days per decade, respectively), but only those sites with advances in snow melt (average 5 days advance per decade) also had advancing phenology. Variation in spring plant phenology was best explained by snow melt date (mean effect: 0.45 days advance in phenology per day advance snow melt) and, to a lesser extent, by mean spring temperature (mean effect: 2.39 days advance in phenology per °C). In contrast to previous studies examining sea ice and phenology at different spatial scales, regional spring drop in sea ice extent did not predict spring phenology for any species or site in our analysis. Our findings highlight that tundra vegetation responses to global change are more complex than a direct response to warming and emphasize the importance of snow melt as a local driver of tundra spring phenology.",
keywords = "Arctic tundra, climate change, phenology, sea ice, snow melt, spring, temperature, vegetation",
author = "Jakob Assmann and Myers-Smith, {Isla H.} and Phillimore, {Albert B.} and Bj{\"o}rkman, {Anne D.} and Ennos, {Richard E.} and Janet Prevey and Henry, {Gregory H. R.} and Schmidt, {Niels Martin} and Hollister, {Robert D.}",
year = "2019",
month = jul,
doi = "10.1111/gcb.14639",
language = "English",
volume = "25",
pages = "2258–2274",
journal = "Global Change Biology",
issn = "1354-1013",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd.",
number = "7",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Local snow melt and temperature – but not regional sea-ice – explain variation in spring phenology in coastal Arctic tundra

AU - Assmann, Jakob

AU - Myers-Smith, Isla H.

AU - Phillimore, Albert B.

AU - Björkman, Anne D.

AU - Ennos, Richard E.

AU - Prevey, Janet

AU - Henry, Gregory H. R.

AU - Schmidt, Niels Martin

AU - Hollister, Robert D.

PY - 2019/7

Y1 - 2019/7

N2 - The Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change with rapidly rising surface temperatures, accelerating sea ice decline and changing snow regimes, all of which influence tundra plant phenology. Despite these changes, no globally consistent direction of trends in spring phenology has been reported across the Arctic. While spring has advanced at some sites, spring has delayed or not changed at other sites, highlighting substantial unexplained variation. Here, we test the relative importance of local temperatures, local snow melt date and regional spring drop in sea ice extent as controls of variation in spring phenology across different sites and species. Trends in long-term time series of spring leaf-out and flowering (average span: 18 years) were highly variable for the 14 tundra species monitored at our four study sites on the Arctic coasts of Alaska, Canada and Greenland, ranging from advances of 10.06 days per decade to delays of 1.67 days per decade. Spring temperatures and the day of spring drop in sea ice extent advanced at all sites (average 1°C per decade and 21 days per decade, respectively), but only those sites with advances in snow melt (average 5 days advance per decade) also had advancing phenology. Variation in spring plant phenology was best explained by snow melt date (mean effect: 0.45 days advance in phenology per day advance snow melt) and, to a lesser extent, by mean spring temperature (mean effect: 2.39 days advance in phenology per °C). In contrast to previous studies examining sea ice and phenology at different spatial scales, regional spring drop in sea ice extent did not predict spring phenology for any species or site in our analysis. Our findings highlight that tundra vegetation responses to global change are more complex than a direct response to warming and emphasize the importance of snow melt as a local driver of tundra spring phenology.

AB - The Arctic is undergoing dramatic environmental change with rapidly rising surface temperatures, accelerating sea ice decline and changing snow regimes, all of which influence tundra plant phenology. Despite these changes, no globally consistent direction of trends in spring phenology has been reported across the Arctic. While spring has advanced at some sites, spring has delayed or not changed at other sites, highlighting substantial unexplained variation. Here, we test the relative importance of local temperatures, local snow melt date and regional spring drop in sea ice extent as controls of variation in spring phenology across different sites and species. Trends in long-term time series of spring leaf-out and flowering (average span: 18 years) were highly variable for the 14 tundra species monitored at our four study sites on the Arctic coasts of Alaska, Canada and Greenland, ranging from advances of 10.06 days per decade to delays of 1.67 days per decade. Spring temperatures and the day of spring drop in sea ice extent advanced at all sites (average 1°C per decade and 21 days per decade, respectively), but only those sites with advances in snow melt (average 5 days advance per decade) also had advancing phenology. Variation in spring plant phenology was best explained by snow melt date (mean effect: 0.45 days advance in phenology per day advance snow melt) and, to a lesser extent, by mean spring temperature (mean effect: 2.39 days advance in phenology per °C). In contrast to previous studies examining sea ice and phenology at different spatial scales, regional spring drop in sea ice extent did not predict spring phenology for any species or site in our analysis. Our findings highlight that tundra vegetation responses to global change are more complex than a direct response to warming and emphasize the importance of snow melt as a local driver of tundra spring phenology.

KW - Arctic tundra

KW - climate change

KW - phenology

KW - sea ice

KW - snow melt

KW - spring

KW - temperature

KW - vegetation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065038419&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/gcb.14639

DO - 10.1111/gcb.14639

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 30963662

VL - 25

SP - 2258

EP - 2274

JO - Global Change Biology

JF - Global Change Biology

SN - 1354-1013

IS - 7

ER -