Limitations and Implications of Product-, Sales- and Market-Oriented Political Parties: Evidence for Public Affairs

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This paper provides the first literature review of work using Lees-Marshment’s product-oriented party (POP), salesoriented
party (SOP) and market-oriented party (MOP) process models with the aims of assessing the models’
usefulness to academics, practitioners and educators. This is motivated by an urgent need to evaluate models that
claim to balance explanatory power, practical applicability and pedagogic value. Our literature review demonstrates
that although the process models can be used in a classroom setting, empirical results are ambivalent as to the usefulness
and even existence of the MOP process in contrast to the POP and/or SOP processes. We conclude that
academics need to revisit the conceptualisation of the process models, that practitioners need to be aware of the
strengths and weaknesses of the process models, especially the assertion that the MOP process is normatively ‘superior’
to the SOP and POP process models, and that educators can use the process models to introduce political
marketing before moving on to more comprehensive models.
Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Public Affairs
Volume11
Issue4
Pages (from-to)395-405
ISSN1472-3891
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2011

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