Integrating nitric oxide into salicylic acid and jasmonic acid/ethylene plant defense pathways

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  • Luis A J Mur, Molecular Plant Pathology Group, Institute of Environmental and Rural Science, Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom
  • Elena Prats, Institute for Sustainable Agriculture, Spanish National Research Council, Spain
  • Sandra Pierre, Molecular Plant Pathology Group, Institute of Environmental and Rural Science, Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom
  • Michael A Hall, Molecular Plant Pathology Group, Institute of Environmental and Rural Science, Aberystwyth University, United Kingdom
  • Kim Hebelstrup
Plant defence against pests and pathogens is known to be conferred by either salicylic acid (SA) or jasmonic acid (JA)/ethylene (ET) pathways, depending on infection or herbivore-grazing strategy. It is well attested that SA and JA/ET pathways are mutually antagonistic allowing defence responses to be tailored to particular biotic stresses. Nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a major signal influencing resistance mediated by both signalling pathways but no attempt has been made to integrate NO into established SA/JA/ET interactions. NO has been shown to act as an inducer or suppressor of signalling along each pathway. NO will initiate SA biosynthesis and nitrosylate key cysteines on TGA-class transcription factors to aid in the initiation of SA—dependent gene expression. Against this, S-nitrosylation of NONEXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED PROTEINS1 (NPR1) will promote the NPR1 oligomerisation within the cytoplasm to reduce TGA activation. In JA biosynthesis, NO will initiate the expression of JA biosynthetic enzymes, presumably to over-come any antagonistic effects of SA on JA-mediated transcription. NO will also initiate the expression of ET biosynthetic genes but a suppressive role is also observed in the S –nitrosylation and inhibition of s-adenosylmethionine transferases which provides methyl groups for ethylene production. Based on these data a model for NO action is proposed but we have also highlighted the need to understand when and how inductive and suppressive steps are used.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFrontiers in Plant Science
Volume4
Issue215
Number of pages7
ISSN1664-462X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2013

    Research areas

  • nitric oxide, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylenes, pathogens, resistance mechanisms, signaling pathways

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