Influence of maternal body mass index on human milk composition and associations to infant metabolism and gut colonisation: MAINHEALTH – a study protocol for an observational birth cohort

Katrine Overgaard Poulsen, Julie Astono, Rasmus Riemer Jakobsen, Niels Uldbjerg, Jens Fuglsang, Dennis Sandris Nielsen, Ulrik Kræmer Sundekilde

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Abstract

Introduction Human milk provides all macronutrients for growth, bioactive compounds, micro-organisms and immunological components, which potentially interacts with and primes infant growth and, development, immune responses and the gut microbiota of the new-born. Infants with an overweight mother are more likely to become overweight later in life and overweight has been related to the gut microbiome. Therefore, it is important to investigate the mother-milk-infant triad as a biological system and if the maternal weight status influences the human milk composition, infant metabolism and gut microbiome. Methods and analysis This study aims to include 200 mother-infant dyads stratified into one of three body mass index (BMI) categories based on mother's prepregnancy BMI. Multiomics analyses include metabolomics, proteomics, glycomics and microbiomics methods, aiming to characterise human milk from the mothers and further relate the composition to infant gut microbiota and its metabolic impact in the infant. Infant gut microbiota is analysed using 16S sequencing of faeces samples. Nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry are used for the remaining omics analysis. We investigate whether maternal pre-pregnancy BMI results in a distinct human milk composition that potentially affects the initial priming of the infant's gut environment and metabolism early in life. Ethics and dissemination The Central Denmark Region Committees on Health Research Ethics has approved the protocol (J-nr. 1-10-72-296-18). All participants have before inclusion signed informed consent and deputy informed consent in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki II. Results will be disseminated to health professionals including paediatricians, research community, nutritional policymakers, industry and finally the public. The scientific community will be informed via peer-reviewed publications and presentations at scientific conferences, the industry will be invited for meetings, and the public will be informed via reports in science magazines and the general press. Data cleared for personal data, will be deposited at public data repositories. Trial registration number Danish regional committee of the Central Jutland Region, journal number: 1-10-72-296-18, version 6. Danish Data Protection Agency, journal number: 2016-051-000001, 1304. ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT05111990.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere059552
JournalBMJ Open
Volume12
Issue11
ISSN2312-0541
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2022

Keywords

  • microbiology
  • nutrition & dietetics
  • paediatrics

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