Independent Validation of a Diagnostic Noninvasive 3-MicroRNA Ratio Model (uCaP) for Prostate Cancer in Cell-Free Urine

Jacob Fredsøe, Anne K I Rasmussen, Emma B Laursen, Yunpeng Cai, Kenneth A Howard, Bodil G Pedersen, Michael Borre, Peter Mouritzen, Torben Òrntoft, Karina D Sørensen

Research output: Contribution to journal/Conference contribution in journal/Contribution to newspaperJournal articleResearchpeer-review


BACKGROUND: Detection of prostate cancer (PC) based on serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing leads to many unnecessary prostate biopsies, overdiagnosis, and overtreatment of clinically insignificant tumors. Thus, novel and more accurate molecular biomarkers are required. METHODS: Using reverse transcription quantitative PCR, we measured the concentrations of 45 preselected microRNAs (miRNAs) in extracellular vesicle-enriched cell-free urine samples from 4 independent patient cohorts from Spain and Denmark, including 758 patients with clinically localized PC, 289 noncancer controls with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and 233 patients undergoing initial transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided prostate biopsy owing to PC suspicion (101 with benign and 132 with malignant outcome). Diagnostic potential was assessed by ROC and decision curve analysis. RESULTS: We identified and successfully validated 8 upregulated and 21 downregulated miRNAs in urine from PC patients. Furthermore, we validated a previously identified 3-miRNA diagnostic ratio model, uCaP (miR-222–3p*miR-24 –3p/miR-30c-5p). High uCaP scores were distinctive of PC in urine samples from BPH vs PC patients in 3 independent cohorts [area under the curve (AUC) 0.84, 0.71, 0.72]. Additionally, uCaP predicted TRUS biopsy results with greater accuracy than PSA (AUC uCaP 0.644; AUC PSA 0.527) for patients within the diagnostic gray zone (PSA 10 ng/mL). CONCLUSIONS: We successfully validated a urine-based diagnostic 3-miRNA signature for PC (uCaP) in 3 independent patient cohorts from 2 countries. In the future, the simple and noninvasive uCaP test may be used to help more accurately select patients for prostate biopsy. Prospective clinical validation is warranted.

Original languageEnglish
JournalClinical Chemistry
Pages (from-to)540-548
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2019


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