Incident peptic ulcers and concomitant treatment of direct oral anticoagulants and oral bisphosphonates—a real-world cohort study

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Summary: Oral bisphosphonates and direct oral anticoagulants are related to upper gastrointestinal ulcers. The present study investigated whether concomitant use of these drugs increase the risk of upper gastrointestinal ulcers and report no increased risk of upper gastrointestinal ulcers compared to the use of either drug alone, when individuals with previous upper gastrointestinal ulcers are excluded. Introduction: This study examines whether concomitant use of oral bisphosphonates (oBP) and direct oral anticoagulants (DOAC) increases the risk of peptic ulcers more than any drug alone. Methods: A population-based cohort study was performed. We sampled a cohort of oBP and DOAC users from a sample of 2,622,742 individuals, consisting of diabetes patients and age- and gender-matched controls, obtained from the Danish National Patient Register. The exposures were concomitant use of oBP and DOAC and single use of DOAC and single use of oBP. The primary endpoint was the first incident peptic ulcer. Information on exposure and outcome were collected from national registries. The period of observation was from 01.01.2008 until 31.12.2018. Unadjusted and adjusted Cox regressions were performed. Results: 8077 individuals received concomitant treatment with DOAC and oBP; 96,451 individuals used DOAC and no oBP; and 118,675 used oBP and no DOAC. The mean duration of follow-up was 1.9 years for concomitant users, 2.5 years for DOAC users, and 4.5 years for oBP users. A total of 4742 individuals with incident peptic ulcers were collected. We observed an increased risk of incident ulcer in users of DOAC and oBP compared to single DOAC treatment in the adjusted analysis (HR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.03; 1.48). However, the effects were abolished when excluding individuals with a previous ulcer. We observed an increased risk of incident ulcer in users of DOAC and oBP compared to users of oBP in the adjusted model (HR = 1.34, 95% CI: 1.11; 1.63). Conclusion: Based on our results, concomitant use of oBP and DOAC is associated with a slight increase in the risk of peptic ulcers compared to either drug alone. The prescribing physician should weigh the slight increased risk of ulcer in concomitant users of oBP and DOAC with beneficial reductions in stroke and fractures.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOsteoporosis International
Volume33
Issue6
Pages (from-to)1323-1334
Number of pages12
ISSN0937-941X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022, International Osteoporosis Foundation and National Osteoporosis Foundation.

    Research areas

  • Bisphosphonates, Direct oral anticoagulants, Peptic ulcer, Proton pump inhibitors

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